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Italy has been one of the few industrial countries resorting to incomes policy in the current decade. Many Italian observers have attributed to this policy the remarkable slowdown in wage and price inflation. However, no apparent progress has been made concerning labour market unbalances, as the unemployment rate remains 4 percentage points above the already high level inherited from the 80s.

This paper analyses this experience: it looks at the evidence of changes in the bargaining structure stemming from the incomes policies agreements, discusses their possible long run impact in terms of NAIRU and features of the inflationary process, presents a quantitative assessment of the specific contribution of those agreements to the inflation outcome. The analysis is carried out by looking at the presence of structural breaks in an aggregate-wage equation and resorting to counterfactual simulations of a large macroeconomic model (the Bank of Italy quarterly model). The empirical results ...

This paper presents an overview of the situation of youth in OECD countries since the onset of the financial crisis focusing primarily on describing the characteristics and living conditions of youth not in employment, education or training (the ‘NEETs’). It also provides data on the availability, coverage and effectiveness of income-support policies for young people, and summarises available evidence on the impact of interventions that aim at improving the social, education and employment situation of the most disadvantaged youth. Due to the paper’s explicit focus on the hardest-to-place, most disadvantaged youth, the range of policies covered is broader than in earlier studies on the same topic, including various social benefits and in-kind services targeted at this group. The paper shows that NEET rates have not yet recovered from the crisis. There are large differences in youth unemployment and inactivity across countries, and these differences were further exacerbated by the recession. Reducing NEET rates is a great challenge for governments, as youth who remain jobless for long periods typically come from more disadvantaged backgrounds, have low levels of educational attainment, and are in many cases inactive. There is substantial evidence, however, that even the most disadvantaged youth can benefit from a variety of targeted interventions, including for instance special education programmes and mentoring.

This paper provides evidence on the reductions of NOx/SOx emissions induced by the adoption of carbon abatement policies. It describes the methodology to compute emissions of these pollutants and the way they were introduced in the OECD GREEN model. This required a compromise between the “top-down” structure of the model and the very detailed information that, in principle, is required to compute NOx/SOx emissions. The simulation results suggest that, on average, the reductions relative to Baseline levels of NOx/SOx emissions may be in the same order of magnitude or are higher than the abatement imposed on carbon emissions ...

  • 15 Nov 2006
  • D. Neykov, F. Aydogan, L. Hochreiter, H. Utsuno, F. Kasahara, E. Sartori, M. Martin
  • Pages: 133

The international OECD/NRC BWR Full-size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT) benchmark, based on the NUPEC database, encourages advancement in sub-channel analysis of two-phase flow in rod bundles, which has great relevance with regard to the nuclear reactor safety margin evaluation. This benchmark specification is being designed so that it can systematically assess and compare the participants’ numerical models for the prediction of detailed sub-channel void distributions and critical powers to full-scale experimental data on a prototypical BWR rod bundle. Currently the numerical modelling of sub-channel void distribution has no theoretical approach that can be applied to a wide range of geometrical and operating conditions. In the past decade, experimental and computational technologies have tremendously improved the study of the two-phase flow structure. Over the next decade, it can be expected that mechanistic approaches will be more widely applied to the complicated two-phase fluid phenomena inside fuel bundles. The development of truly mechanistic models for critical power prediction is currently underway. These models must include processes such as void distribution, droplet deposition, liquid film entrainment and spacer grid behaviour. The benchmark specification requires participants to explain their modelling correlations between the measured critical power and the two-phase flow dominant processes.

The study examines agricultural development in Namibia in the context of the economic environment, with a view to providing policy perspectives which may assist in the process of reform towards a more equitable and dynamic economy. It shows that the improvement of smallholder incomes provides the only means of improving the position of the majority of poor Namibians, and examines how best to raise agricultural output without endangering the large-scale farmers who are vital to the economy.

The significance for agricultural development of the customs and monetary agreements between Namibia and South Africa, and other external policies, is examined. The reform of pricing and marketing structures in Namibia is constrained by these external arrangements, but they also provide some benefits. The assessment of these and other issues provides the basis for an analysis of the reform options facing Namibian agriculture and the links between agricultural and economywide policies ...

The paper brings together information collected through discussions and projects undertaken by the OECD Working Party on Nanotechnology (WPN) relevant to the development and use of nanotechnology for green innovation. It relies in particular on preliminary results from the WPN project on the Responsible Development of Nanotechnology and on conclusions from a symposium, organised by the OECD WPN together with the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative, which took place in March 2012 in Washington DC, United States, on Assessing the Economic Impact of Nanotechnology. It also draws on material from the four background papers that were developed for the symposium.
Nanotechnology is commonly considered to offer considerable promise extending from business opportunities throughout various industries to broader socio-economic benefits, especially in the context of pressing global challenges such as those related to energy, health care, clean water and climate change. Governments around the world have invested heavily in R&D in this field and companies are also becoming increasingly engaged. Despite this promise, investments and company involvement in nanotechnology developments are still poorly monitored. The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of these developments through a systematic and critical analysis of available indicators and statistics, while acknowledging that there is a need for further work to both broaden the range of, and develop further, nanotechnology metrics.
Since the first OECD country published its national adaptation strategy in 2005, there has been a marked increase in national planning for climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of national adaptation planning activity across OECD countries and identifies some of the emerging lessons that have been learnt from their experiences.

The analysis draws on three main sources of information: a survey of countries’ national communications to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); three country case studies (Mexico, England and the United States); and the results of a Policy Forum on Adaptation hosted by the OECD in 2012. It finds that twenty-six OECD countries have developed or are currently developing strategic frameworks for national adaptation and seventeen of those countries have also produced or are working on detailed national adaptation plans. Countries have made significant investments in building an increasingly sophisticated evidence base to support adaptation, and to build adaptive capacity. National governments have commonly established policies to mainstream adaptation into government operations and regulatory systems, and established co-ordination mechanisms to ensure action across government. Local and regional governments have also played significant roles in adaptation efforts, though less progress has been made in establishing systematic approaches to co-ordination between national and subnational governments.

The development of strategies and plans has occurred recently, with implementation still at an early stage. Nonetheless, the case studies and OECD workshop revealed three key challenges faced by countries as they have started to implement their strategies and plans: overcoming climate information shortcomings and associated capacity constraints; securing adequate financing; and measuring the success of adaptation interventions. Action to address these constraints will be vital to ensuring that progress in planning translates into improvements in outcomes.

This paper describes a number of national annuity markets, the types of products typically available, the demand for these products, the value for money on offer and the dynamics of the supply side. It explores supply and demand characteristics, asking what the main forces are that drive these dynamics and how they might be recognised and responded to by policymakers.
This report surveys national broadband plans (NBP) across the OECD area, providing an overview of common elements and goals in those plans. An annex to this report contains references and links to the plans.

The act of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) by a state is a sovereign right protected by Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations and Article VII of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). It is a step towards nuclear disarmament by restricting the areas on earth and in space where such weapons may be freely produced, moved, tested, stationed and used. It is a measure of national security for states that wish to distance their territory and their populations completely from the nuclear arms race, its implications and its effects on development, health and international relations. When the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) enters into force, probably this year, over half of the earth’s land mass and 119 countries will be protected in such zones.


This assessment of the present context for evolving socio-economic patterns and trends in the United States is intended to support consideration of prospects for gains in income shares among the lower income population, recognising that the United States is: a very large heterogeneous population; highly dispersed over a large geographic area; highly technologically developed; and with relatively high incomes by world standards. All of these factors conduce to the need to recognize the characteristics of individual nations as they move toward improved incomes for their populations. The key factor for the future in the US will be better utilisation of the underemployed population to abet the need for skilled workers to support a large aging dependent population, including better education, and greater mobility providing access to employment and to other social and economic opportunities. It is hoped that this assessment adds further dimension to the important challenges addressed here.

Organisation and structure

Radioactive waste management
Liability and compensation
Nuclear facilities

Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation)
Radioactive waste management

Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning)
Nuclear security
Radioactive waste management
Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

Radioactive waste management

Organisation and structure

Slovak Republic
International co-operation
Nuclear security
Liability and compensation

Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning)

United States
General legislation, regulations and instruments

Amendment to the Criminal Code (2004)

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Amendment Act (2006)
Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Legislation Amendment Act (2006)

Amendments to the Radiation Act and Radiation Decree (2005)

Decree on Securing Financing for Nuclear Charges (2007)
Decree Licensing the Construction of the Basic Nuclear Installation “Flamanville 3” Comprising an EPR Reactor (2007)

Amendment to the Act on Preventive Radiation Protection (2006)
Administrative Provisions on the Supervision of Environmental Radioactivity (2006)
Ordinance on Radioactive Drugs (2007) 
Amendment to the Ordinance on the Treatment of Foodstuffs with Radiation (2006)
European Agreement Relating to the International Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) (2006)
Ordinance on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail (2006)
Ordinance to Amend the RID Regulations (2006)
Ordinance on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods on the Rhine and Mosel Rivers (2006)
Amendments to the 1961 Foreign Trade Act and to the 1993 Foreign Trade Ordinance (2006)

Regulations in the Field of Radiation Protection (2003)

Decree on Nuclear Reactor Licensing (2006)

Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road Act 1998 (Appointment of Competent Authorities) Order (2006)

Decree on Emergency Planning with Regard to the Transport of Radioactive and Fissile Materials (2006)

Covenant Between the Government and the Borssele Operator Concerning the Life Extension (2006)

New Zealand
Consolidated Edition of the 1965 Radiation Protection Act (2005)

Regulation on Ionising Radiation Sources (2006)

Decision Approving the Structure and Organisation of the Romanian Nuclear Agency (2007)
Amendment of the 2003 Decision Approving the Internal Rules of the National Commission for the Control of Nuclear Activities (CNCAN) (2007)
Amendment of the 2003 Ordinance on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste, including Final Disposal (2007)

Russian Federation
Act on Administrative and Property Management of the Civilian Nuclear Energy Sector (2007)

Slovak Republic
Amendment of the Atomic Act (2007)

Regulation on Monitoring of Radioactivity (2007)

South Africa
Regulations on the Contents of the Annual Public Report (2006)
Regulations on the Keeping of Records (2006)
Regulations on Safety Standards and Regulatory Practices (2006)

Amendment to the Act and Ordinance on Nuclear Activities (2006)


Resolution of the National Council on Energy Policy on the Resumption of Construction of a Thermonuclear Plant (2007) 

Decree on Technical Enquiries in the Event of Incidents or Accidents Relating to Nuclear Activities (2007)
Order on the Organisation of the General Directorate of Enterprises (GDE) within the Ministry of Industry (2007) 
Decree on the Listing of Basic Nuclear Installations (2007) 
Decree on Basic Nuclear Installations and Verifying the Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Materials Transport (2007) 

Decree Implementing the Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom on the Control of High-activity Sealed Radioactive Sources and Orphan Sources (2007) 
Amendment to the Environmental Law Decree (2007)

Amendment to the Law on Final Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste (2007)

Law on the Nuclear Power Plant (2007)

Grand-ducal Regulations on the Protection of the Public Against the Risks Resulting from Ionising Radiation (2006) 
Law on Approving the Agreement Between Luxembourg and Belgium Relating to Information Exchange in the Event of an Incident or Accident (2006) 

People’s Republic of China
Regulations on the Management and Monitoring of Nuclear Safety Equipment for Civilian Use (2007) 
Official Reply of the State Council to Questions on the Liabilities of Compensation for Damages Resulting from Nuclear Accidents (2007) 

Government Decision on the Monitoring of the Health of Personnel (2007) 
Order on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials During Transport (2007) 
Order on Preventive Protection of Nuclear Installations (2007)
Order on the Verification of the Physical Protection System of Nuclear Installations (2007)
Ordinance on the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste (2007)
Government Decision Regarding Financial Resources Necessary for the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste (2007)
Amendment of the Law on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (2007)

Russian Federation
Reform of the Russian Nuclear Power Industry (2007)

Slovak Republic
Atomic Act Amendment on Alternative Financing of the Nuclear Regulatory Body (2007)

Decree on the Control of Radioactive Contamination in the Shipment of Scrap Metal (2007)

Amendment to the Nuclear Energy Act (2007)

Decision on the Merger of Regulatory Authorities (2007)

Law Concerning the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated from Those Plants (2007)

United States
Final Rule Amending Regulations Applicable to the Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plants (2007)
Final Rule Implementing a National Source Tracking System (2006)
Final Rule on Design Basis Threat (2007)


Criminal Court decision respecting attempted export of nuclear-related dual use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen vs Yadegari (2010)

Supreme Administrative Court on the legal status of ÈEZ (2010)
National Legislative and Regulatory Activities BULGARIA Amendment to the Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy (2010)

Law on the new organisation of the electricity market (2010)

Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act extending the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants (2010)
Amendment to the Reliability Assessment Ordinance (2010)
Amendment to the Ordinance on Persons Responsible for Nuclear Safety and on Reportable Events (2010)
Amendment to the Environmental Impact Assessment Act (2010)

Decree transposing European Council Directive 2006/117/Euratom (2010)

Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010)

Amendment to Article 35 of Law 111/1996 regarding new tasks of CNCAN (2010)
Order approving norms regarding the radiological monitoring or recyclable metal materials (2010)

Establishment of the Agency for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (2009)

Rules on operational safety of radiation and nuclear facilities (2009)
Rules on radiation and nuclear safety factors (2009) Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage (2010)

Abolishment of the Act on phasing out of nuclear energy (2010)
Act on Liability and Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2010)

Final rule on the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel (2010)
Status of the high-level waste repository programme (2010)
Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (2010)
Final rule on the export and import of nuclear equipment and material (2010)


Amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009)
Criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non-criminal violations of radiation safety requirements (2009)

Law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010)

Decree establishing a Committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010)
Law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010)

Tenth Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act (2010)
Act on Environmental Impact Assessment (2009)
Radiation Protection Commission (2009)
Act on the Protection against Non-ionizing Radiation (2009)
International transport of dangerous goods by road (2009)

Order to amend Regulations on Active Implantable Medical Devices (2010)
Amendment to Medical Devices Regulations (2010)

Decree setting out rules for the siting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010)

Law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009)
Government Decision on the reorganisation of electric power producers (2010)

Amendment of the Atomic Act (2009)

Law regulating limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009)

Overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009)

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