Browse by: "V"


Title Index

Year Index


This policy brief examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on vocational education and training (VET) systems and how VET systems are responding in OECD countries. The brief also presents steps that governments can take in the context of this crisis to build foundations for tomorrow’s strong and resilient VET systems.


In the recent past, the analysis of plant transients and the analysis of reactor core behaviour were performed separately. Usually, the core was represented by a point kinetics model to analyse plant transients and, for the core physics calculations, boundary conditions were imposed at the inlet and the outlet of the core. In reality, these boundary conditions depend on the power generation in the core. To ensure a realistic description of the physical phenomena in an accident analysis, the application of coupled codes is required. In recent years code developers began coupling three-dimensional (3-D) neutron kinetics codes with advanced thermal-hydraulics system codes. Such complex computer codes allow modelling of the entire reactor system, including a 3-D neutronics core. When reactivity initiated accidents with an asymmetric neutron flux distribution in the core are analysed, only such coupled codes are capable of estimating the real feedback effects. These codes can perform safety analyses in order to replace the conservative estimations with best-estimate calculations.

  • 19 Oct 2006
  • Eugeny Gomin, Mikhail Kalugin, Dmitry Oleynik
  • Pages: 88

This report presents the VVER MOX Core Computational Benchmark Specification and Results, which was proposed as a benchmark within the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Reactor-based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD). Benchmark results, obtained using three computer codes, are presented. The codes include: the MCU Monte Carlo code (Kurchatov Institute, Russian Federation), RADAR (Kurchatov Institute, Russian Federation), and the MCNP Monte Carlo code (GRS, Germany). The codes use different methods and different nuclear data. A comparison of the results shows good agreement among the various codes.

This paper addresses the following questions about immovable property taxation in OECD and partner countries: What is valued? How is it valued? And who values? It draws on published information and data on property tax policy and administration in 172 countries. It focuses on value-based taxes and the features of mass valuation systems. Main system options (such as whether taxes are based on annual rental values or capital values as reflected by sales prices) are described and briefly evaluated. It notes that valuation practices frequently ignore revaluation requirements; it identifies four areas for improving valuation performance based on the experiences of leading systems.
As firms shift to more open models of innovation based on collaboration and external sourcing of knowledge, they are exploiting their intellectual property, notably patents, not only by incorporating protected inventions into new products, processes and services, but also by licensing them to other firms or public research organisations (PROs), using them as bargaining chips in negotiations with other firms, and as a means of attracting external financing from banks, venture capitalists and other sources...
Promoting public transportation, which includes rail, metro, bus rapid transit, and bus services is one of the most popular urban transportation policies among transportation authorities in many countries. This popularity may reflect the social requirement to pursue a sustainable transportation system by motivating people to use an environmentally friendly transportation mode. In particular, the modal shift from the automobile to public transportation is highlighted in urban transportation planning because many cities have suffered from serious traffic congestion, which has caused economic losses as well as negative impacts on local, regional, and global environments. In order to attract individuals to use public transportation, the improvement of service is critical. This includes increasing service frequency, decreasing travel time, upgrading station facilities, and introducing higher-capacity vehicles.

Global value chains (GVCs) in agriculture and food sectors have the potential to influence trading relationships and the gains from trade for different sectors along the value chain. This report explores the way in which value from trade and GVC participation is created for the agriculture sector. It examines differences in returns to the sector from participation in GVCs and trade either directly in contrast to participation that relies on downstream domestic processing. The study makes use of a database on trade in value added for 22 agro-food sectors derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that aggregate value to the agriculture and to the economy overall from direct participation in trade and GVCs generates at least as much value as participation that relies on domestic downstream processing. Similar overall gains from primary exports are associated with greater volumes and the value created from ‘value addition’ to these exports – the embodied service and other inputs. Indeed, countries that specialise in primary exports have higher shares of service value added in these exports, with this also being a determinant of value growth for middle-income countries.

Marine data play a crucial role for many scientific disciplines, as well as for very diverse operational services such as fisheries management, environmental planning, marine conservation, weather forecasting, or port management. The information derived from marine data is also increasingly finding its way into a wide and varied range of public policy arenas and private industries. Collecting, distributing and archiving public marine data provide benefits to society at large, however as with all public investments, assessments are needed to provide evidence to decision makers. Based on an original survey of UK marine data users, this paper explores pathways through which marine data are used and transformed into actionable information, creating systematised value chains for the first time. The analysis unveils trends in current marine data uses in the UK and key benefits of data uses. The paper lays the foundations for further OECD work with the marine data community.

This study analyses how 14 OECD Countries refer to “value” when making decisions on reimbursement and prices of new medicines. It details the type of outcomes considered, the perspective and methods adopted for economic evaluation when used; and the consideration of budget impact. It describes which dimensions are taken into account in the assessment of “innovativeness” and the consequences of this assessment on prices; it confirms that treatments for severe and/or rare diseases are often more valued than others and shows how countries use product-specific agreements in an attempt to better align value and price.

Values and ethics are automatically incorporated into any teaching/learning environment or endeavour, whether or not they are consciously stated objectives. The focus on “quality of education” has sharpened as people have become concerned about a perceived rise in materialism as standards of living have improved; materialistic ambitions increasingly fill the ideological gap created by the move to a pluralistic society in which there is a less general consensus of values and ethics. There is increasing demand for insight into the potential of the formal teaching/learning process for inculcating, learning/unlearning (as the case may be) and consolidating values. The manner in which teachers are trained has far-reaching implications for the youth in schools, and a systemic inquiry into the structure, role, responsibilities, aims and curricular objectives of teacher education is the obvious starting point. This paper tries to delineate the global normative aims of education as a model for assessing the composition of the teacher education curriculum in Pakistan. It looks at the intended curriculum, bearing in mind that the formal and the active curricula may not necessarily converge. The paper accepts that ethics and values education is still in a formative stage. However, one critical question that will remain open at the philosophical level is “which values should be included?” and this needs to be vigorously researched to establish guidelines that have global consensus. The next crucial question will then be “how best to teach to ensure that these ethics and values are internalised by learners?” 


This paper is based mainly on responses – nearly 300 – to a web-based survey of academic staff in UK higher education. The survey examined their personal and professional values and their views on the values that should underpin higher education. Their perceptions of current reality in terms of national policy and processes and of institutional management expectations, with examples provided of events that disturbed them, raise questions about the longer term health of higher education as it has been understood. The project was seen as a pilot aiming to provoke debate about how well traditional values and standards “fit” with mass levels of higher education provision, and government emphases on the economic role of higher education. The findings are set in a theoretical context drawing on models by Clark (1983), Becher and Kogan (1992) and the author (McNay, 1995, 2005a).

The experience of transport systems users, in terms of comfort, reliability, safety and above all convenience, is critical in determining demand for transport services, at least when there is a choice of alternative ways to travel. Convenience is one of the strongest attractions of the private car for passenger transport. For users of public transport, convenience is also clearly important but not always clearly defined and not often measured in designing transport systems or monitoring their operating performance. In many situations, an increase in public transport convenience reduces the unit costs of travel (euros/dollars per hour or cents per minute) and so provides benefits equivalent to an increase in travel speed. This report focuses on convenience and its importance to the user experience. It reviews operational definitions of convenience, evidence for the willingness of users to pay for convenience and the use of indicators to assess and improve the convenience of public transport, with a view to making it more effective and more competitive.

This paper uses options pricing techniques to estimate the value of the government’s tax claim on household or business incomes. It treats the annual tax claim as a European call option on taxable income (a European call is an option that can be exercised at its expiration date and not before). The option’s expiration date is the end of the fiscal year and its strike price is the threshold level of income below which income is not subject to tax. The paper derives three alternative valuation formulas, each associated with an alternative functional form for the tax code (a flat tax, a step-function and a more general tax function). The application of options pricing theory to tax claims is found to be relatively straightforward. The approach proposed here could be used to refine accounting on the assets side of the government’s balance sheet. It would not be more difficult to implement than many common applications of options theory ...

This report examines key properties – or “vectors” – of the digital transformation that fundamentally affect the economy and society and accordingly the design and efficacy of public policies. It explores three main areas where digital transformation affects the ways the economy and society are operating, i.e.: a) scale, scope and speed; b) ownership, assets and economic value; and c) relationships, markets and ecosystems. Exposing the underlying nature of change, the seven vectors provide insights on how the transformation challenges policies that are frequently predicated on an analogue world of tangible products and assets, fixed geographic boundaries and physical locations, on transaction costs that limit the scale and scope of interactions and offerings, and on supply and demand conditions that reflect scarcity. The objective of this report is to support the review of existing and the design of new policies to ensure that they are well‑suited to the digital era.

The COVID-19 crisis has provided an opportunity to rethink the Veneto Region’s economic strategy. This paper examines the links between cultural and creative sectors and the regional manufacturing economy of the Veneto Region in the North of Italy, highlighting the important role that cultural production, and in particular Venice, can play in the region’s post-pandemic recovery strategies.

The Bolivarian Schools Project is intended to respond to problems such as dropping out, educational exclusion, repetition, malnutrition, and loss of local, regional and national identity, and to the search for citizens interested in economic and social transformation.

Canada has one of the highest levels of venture capital investment as a share of GDP among OECD countries. Between 1995 and 2001, Canada realised phenomenal growth in venture capital supply and the creation of over 200 new venture capital funds. However, the largest share of Canadian venture capital goes to follow-on funding of smaller firms -- rather than to new deals involving start-ups -- and to traditional manufacturing sectors. In the late 1990s, the Canadian government began attempts to diversify the sources of venture funds through liberalising rules for institutional and foreign investors, modifying tax incentives and introducing government equity funds. Foreign investors, particularly from the United States, are now the major players and are targeting their funding to technology-based start-ups. This paper analyses trends in Canadian venture capital markets and makes policy recommendations which have been developed through an OECD peer review process ...

Denmark has one of the lowest levels of venture capital investment as a share of GDP among OECD countries. The Danish government tried a number of supply-side initiatives in the 1990s with varying degrees of success. Problems stem from a lack of equity investment culture, the high levels and complexity of taxes, a dominant role played by banks in venture financing, and few contributions from other institutional investors. A new strategy focuses on providing seed capital to start-ups through a reorganised government equity fund and technology incubators. The challenge is to build on this momentum to further diversify early-stage financing and deepen the entrepreneurial culture. This paper analyses trends in Danish venture capital markets and makes policy recommendations which have been developed through an OECD peer review process.

Israel has a higher level of venture capital as a share of GDP than any OECD country. Most Israeli venture capital is channelled to early-stage companies, particularly start-ups in sectors based on information and communications technology (ICT) and biotechnology. The Israeli venture capital industry was built through government funding, particularly through the YOZMA group, which leveraged financing from foreign corporations and institutions. There is now a need for a change in tactics to maintain private venture funding for both portfolio and seed firms. While new incentives are being given to foreign investors, domestic venture investments could be encouraged through tax breaks, expanded opportunities for institutional investors, and reforms to the Israeli stock exchange. Israel needs to sustain growth in the venture sector while reducing dependence on a limited number of capital sources. This paper analyses trends in Israeli venture capital markets and makes policy ...

The Korean venture capital market has grown dramatically in recent years, starting from a negligible base in the early 1990s and almost tripling between 1998 and 2001. Korea now ranks among the leading OECD countries in venture capital investment as a share of GDP. Korea weathered the severe financial crisis of 1997-98 to face the challenge of reducing the influence of large corporations (the chaebol) and augmenting the role of technology-oriented small firms. The government jump-started the venture capital market in 1998 through direct infusion of equity capital, generous tax incentives and equity guarantees, and the designation of certain small firms as “venture businesses”. Concerns relate to the need to further privatise the venture capital system and to increase the supply of investment-ready small firms. This paper analyses trends in Korean venture capital markets and makes policy recommendations which have been developed through an OECD peer review process ...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error