Browse by: "2019"


Title Index

Year Index


Productivity in Russia has fallen steadily over the past 15 years. This paper explores micro-level data to understand the contribution of individual firms to aggregate productivity. Overall, firm-level data corroborate the decline in aggregate productivity and a widening productivity gap against several European countries. They also show that the gap between “the best” and “the rest” has widened in Russia, similar to other countries. Russian markets are quite concentrated, i.e. dominated by few large firms. Larger firms tend to be more productive, but firms at the productivity frontier have become smaller and younger over time, suggesting that more support for young and innovative firms could help raise productivity. Foreign ownership is associated with higher productivity, and there is evidence that foreign firms generate positive productivity spillovers for domestic firms. Service firms belong to the most productive, yet the service sector remains underdeveloped. Mining is also very productive but less than in other countries. Differences in productivity across regions are large, even controlling for many other determinants, suggesting a lack of capital and labour mobility and knowledge transfer across regional borders.

To enjoy the same success in the future as in the past, Malaysia will need to ensure that more people develop the right skills and use them effectively in the workplace. Special attention needs to be devoted to supporting disadvantaged students and adults in developing critical skills and reducing the skills imbalances in the labour market, which can contribute to higher productivity and growth. 

In light of the importance of skills for fostering labour productivity, this paper examines evidence of skills imbalances in Malaysia and assesses Malaysia’s performance in a number of key policy areas that can help reduce imbalances. The first section provides an overview of skill imbalances in the Malaysian labour market and presents new evidence from the OECD Skills for Jobs database. The subsequent sections discuss how Malaysia performs in four policies areas that are important for minimising imbalances: i) improving teacher quality and practices, ii) strengthening the connection between education institutions and employment, iii) providing training opportunities during working life, and iv) making better use of women’s skills. The final section focuses on demand side policies that can support Malaysia to move towards a high-skill equilibrium and discusses areas of action to improve the conditions that promote the development of a more innovative and dynamic economy.

This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Malaysia (http://www.oecd.org/economy/malaysia-economic-snapshot)

L’apprentissage tout au long de la vie est particulièrement important pour les immigrés, qui sont souvent défavorisés sur le plan de la langue et des compétences valorisées sur le marché du travail de leur pays d’accueil. Cependant, les adultes nés à l’étranger sont moins susceptibles, en comparaison avec leurs pairs autochtones, de participer à des formations et se heurtent à des obstacles financiers et non financiers plus importants pour prendre part à ces formations. Il convient de déployer des efforts politiques visant non seulement à multiplier les possibilités de formation mais aussi à éliminer les obstacles empêchant la participation à ces activités.


Making housing more affordable ranks high on the policy agenda across the world. One way to achieve affordable housing is to ensure sufficiently elastic supply of the housing stock in response to demand shocks. This paper aims at disentangling policy from non-policy drivers in explaining cross-regional differences in housing supply elasticities. It uses GIS data to account for the presence of natural and man-made obstacles to residential construction in functional urban areas across the 12 OECD countries that provide sufficiently long time series for regional house prices. The results suggest that the presence of water, steep land, parks and high-density urban areas all restrict the supply of housing. However, there remain very large differences in supply elasticities across countries, which corroborates the finding from national analysis that policies have a strong influence.

This paper presents the results of an ex post evaluation of the impacts of a vehicle tax reform in Ireland, by carrying out a full social cost benefit analysis of a vehicle tax reform that began in Ireland in 2008 and shows that whilst successful in improving the fuel economy of new passenger cars, it may also have caused unintended effects, such as an increased proliferation of diesel vehicles in the passenger car fleet. These outcomes have mitigated the overall benefits. In addition to quantifying the scale of the various effects and outcomes, this paper clearly demonstrates the importance of broad scope policy design.

This systematic review investigates the relevance of general pedagogical knowledge for successful teaching. It synthesises the empirical evidence of 10 769 teaching professionals and 853 452 students from primary to tertiary education in 21 countries. The meta-analysis of 20 quantitative studies revealed significant effects for teaching quality and student outcomes (Cohen’s d = .64 and .26), indicating that more knowledgeable teachers achieve a three-month additional progress for students. The three themes emerging from 31 qualitative studies underline that general pedagogical knowledge is a crucial resource for teaching. Results also show that teaching requires knowledge about a range of topics, specific skills and other competences to transform knowledge into practice. Teachers need training and practical experience to acquire knowledge, which they apply according to the pedagogical situation at hand. The results allow for important conclusions for policy, practice and research.

The trend rise of house prices in many OECD countries suggests weakness in the adjustment of supply to demand. This paper estimates long-term elasticities of housing supply to prices in OECD countries before exploring their drivers with a focus on policies. It finds a significant association between weaker supply responsiveness and a proxy measure for more restrictive land-use regulation. Besides, tighter rent controls are linked with lower supply elasticities. In turn, weak supply responsiveness implies that house prices rise more following stronger demand. The sensitivity of house prices to household income is also higher in countries that provide larger amounts of tax relief for homeowners.

This Working Paper presents the main findings and recommendations of the pilot study carried out on the treatment of peace and security expenditures in the statistical measure of total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD).

The pilot study explored the relevance of including various peace and security expenditures in the TOSSD framework, and formulated recommendations to the International TOSSD Task Force on the eligibility criteria, the potential safeguards and the delineation between TOSSD pillar I and II for peace and security expenditures. On this basis, the Task Force adopted in June 2019 specific text on the treatment of peace and security in the TOSSD Reporting Instructions.

The pilot study also allowed to derive first estimates of TOSSD flows for peace and security and a light assessment was carried out of the capacity of the organisations / countries met during the pilot to provide TOSSD data on peace and security.

Lifelong learning is especially important for immigrants, who are often at a disadvantage in terms of the languages and skills that are valued in the labour market of their host country. Yet foreign-born adults are less likely to participate in training than native-born ones, and face higher financial and non-financial barriers to training. Policy efforts should focus not only on providing more training opportunities, but also on removing barriers to participation.


This paper presents findings of an OECD review of managed entry agreements in OECD countries and EU member states conducted in 2018 and 2019. Findings are based on discussions with the OECD Expert Group on Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices, responses by experts from 12 OECD countries to a survey and semi-structured interviews, and on the literature as well as information published by national authorities responsible for coverage and pricing of medicines.

This paper produces new evidence and stylised facts on housing, wealth accumulation and wealth distribution, relying on an in-depth analysis of micro-based data on household wealth across OECD countries. The analysis addresses several questions: i) How is homeownership and housing tenure distributed across the population along various socio-economic characteristics such as income, wealth and age? What is the weight of housing in households’ balance sheets and how does this vary across socio-economic groups? ii) What is the incidence of mortgage debt across households and how does this vary across socio-economic groups? What is the impact of mortgage debt on access to homeownership and wealth accumulation, and on debt overburden and financial risks among vulnerable groups? iii) Is housing a vehicle for wealth accumulation? Can it be a barrier to residential mobility? iv) Is there a link between homeownership and wealth inequality? Between inequality in housing wealth and in total wealth? A key policy issue addressed in this paper is whether and how housing-related policies affect wealth distribution. Another important issue is whether housing-related policies raise potential trade-offs between equity, or inequality reduction, and other policy objectives such as employment and productivity growth as well as macroeconomic resilience. Informed by the stylised facts and existing evidence, this paper discusses preliminary policy implications of housing reform to promote inclusiveness and social mobility, to enhance efficiency in the allocation of labour and capital and to strengthen macroeconomic resilience.

This literature review examines the research on early childhood education and care (ECEC) leadership and how leaders impact process quality in ECEC settings. Process quality refers to interactions and relationships between and among children and ECEC staff, and is a strong predictor of children’s learning, development and well-being. Research suggests that leadership plays a central role in improving and sustaining process quality in ECEC settings. This literature review presents findings about: 1) the functions, roles and structures of leadership in ECEC settings, 2) factors that may support or hinder leadership and its effectiveness, 3) working conditions and professional development for staff, and 4) how these factors might impact process quality. The results suggest that supports for ECEC leadership may be needed to strengthen areas such as leadership recruitment, preparation and professional development, credentialing and compensation, job design and further research.

Swedish school results declined for two decades following a series of reforms in the early 1990s decentralising the school system and introducing choice, competition and management by objectives. The general aims and direction of reform were not destined to lower results, but weaknesses of reform design and implementation, against the backdrop of a deep recession, likely contributed to falling outcomes. Residential segregation and the current model of competition and choice increase school segregation and likely reduce equality of opportunity. A coherent set of reforms should strengthen central government institutions, rebuild a regional governance structure and increasingly target funding to pupils’ needs. Better steering of competition and school choice implies ensuring that grades fairly represent pupils’ skills and knowledge, that municipalities increasingly take the socio-economic mix of pupils into account in entry and investment decisions, and that entry and expansion of private schools are better coordinated to counter school segregation. Teaching needs to become more attractive to raise the quality of recruitment to the profession and to address current and future teacher shortages by improving teacher education, strengthening continuous learning and instigating more cooperation, feedback and support between colleagues.

This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden (http://www.oecd.org/economy/sweden-economic-snapshot/).

This paper presents the econometric analysis of lower secondary school performance carried out for the chapter on education of the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden. The dataset covers most Swedish schools providing education for 9th graders. Student socio-economic background has a considerable impact on academic results. Policy inputs are also correlated with results, notably in schools with pupils from weaker socio-economic backgrounds, but teacher qualifications and spending per student are endogenous. For-profit private schools underperform compared to non-profit and public schools, albeit with strong heterogeneity between schools. The introduction of an indicator of competition, based on the density of schools, suggests that intensified school competition lowers results in schools with a high share of pupils from weaker socio-economic backgrounds. Schools, and especially those achieving weaker results, have scope to raise their performance by improving their adaptation to student needs.

This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden


Following the historic 2015 Paris Agreement aiming to limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, 165 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, representing 192 countries, have been submitted. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) detail each Party’s efforts to reduce domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This paper, recognising the role of cities and regions in implementing the Paris Agreement, highlights the need for an integrated approach in implementing NDCs and long-term low GHG emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) and attempts to present key policy options for such an approach. First, the paper identifies the national and subnational co-ordination mechanisms in current NDCs, LT-LEDS and other subnational climate strategies and argues that the current processes of developing and implementing NDCs and LT-LEDS provide a unique opportunity for national governments to integrate innovative subnational climate action. The paper then assesses the potential for co-ordination of national, regional and local climate mitigation investment through the lens of the OECD Recommendation on Effective Public Investment Across Levels of Government adopted in 2014.

This paper studies the association between occupational licensing and job hire and job separation rates along with earnings of job stayers and job-to-job movers. In contrast to previous studies, it attempts to provide macro-level estimates by relying on a novel Job-to-Job Flows database from the U.S. Census Bureau, covering the near universe of job transitions. The empirical analysis exploits variation in licensing regulation across states and industries and constructs indicators for both the share of employment subject to licensing (the extensive margin) and the strictness of regulation (the intensive margin). Results show that more extensive and stricter licensing are both associated with lower job mobility. This holds for job-to-job mobility as well as for transitions in and out of nonemployment. The strictness indicator points to lower job-to-job mobility from entry restrictions and renewal requirements to licensing, while education and training requirements may increase job-to-job mobility. The analysis also finds a negative association between licensing restrictions for people with a criminal record and job hire from nonemployment. Further analysis shows that interstate job-to-job mobility tends to be lower towards states with more extensive and stricter licensing regulation. The results from the analysis of earnings are generally mixed and mostly insignificant. However, there is some evidence of lower earnings gains from job-to-job moves to states with more licensing within the same industry, which may reflect lower productivity growth because of weaker reallocation of labour resources and reduced competition.

This paper investigates how digital technologies have shaped the concentration of inventive activity in cities across 30 OECD countries. It finds that patenting is highly concentrated: from 2010 to 2014, 10% of cities accounted for 64% of patent applications to the European Patent Office, with the top five (Tokyo, Seoul, San Francisco, Higashiosaka and Paris) representing 21.8% of applications. The share of the top cities in total patenting increased modestly from 1995 to 2014. Digital technology patent applications are more concentrated in top cities than applications in other technology fields. In the United States, which has led digital technology deployment, the concentration of patent applications in top cities increased more than in Japan and Europe over the two decades. Econometric results confirm that digital technology relates positively to patenting activities in cities and that it benefits top cities, in particular, thereby strengthening the concentration of innovation in these cities.

Forced displacement, including refugee flows, is a global phenomenon. As of 2018, 26 million people were refugees. Financing from the international community makes a significant contribution to supporting refugees and host communities. But in order to meet those needs effectively and efficiently, financing strategies need to take account of the particularities of large-scale refugee situations. Refugee flows are complex, often protracted, and, require humanitarian, development and peace financing to work in complementary ways. Doing this effectively can create opportunities that are of benefit to both refugees and host communities. This policy paper presents seven principles for improving financing for refugee situations, based on global trends and case studies in three hosting countries (Uganda, Lebanon, and Colombia) and one origin/return country (Central African Republic). Both the quality and the quantity of financing matters to get the greatest value for refugees and their host communities.

Due to the lack of Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) at regional level, regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) figures have been traditionally adjusted using national PPPs. The simplifying assumption that all regions of a country have the same cost of living, and implicitly that there are no regional differences in prices, might lead to regional GDP figures (adjusted for national PPPs) that are biased and might limit the design and implementation of regional policies. This paper tries to overcome this problem by estimating PPPs at subnational level (TL2 regions) for OECD countries through a new method which uses publicly available data and is based on the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error