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The present paper was prepared in the context of a joint project between the OECD Investment Committee (IC) and Development Assistance Committee (DAC) on Official Development Assistance and Investment for Development. It responds to discussions at the IC-DAC Workshop on Synergies between ODA and Foreign Direct Investment on 11 March 2004, during which participants opined that development agencies lack information about the quality of the investment climate in developing countries and the likely repercussions for direct investment.

The purpose of the present paper is threefold. First, it provides an overview of a variety of scoreboards for the investment climate that have been established by a number of actors, including the World Bank, UNCTAD and several private “think tanks”. Second, it documents their similarities and discrepancies in assessing the investment climates of developing, emerging and transition economies (henceforth jointly referred to as “developing countries”) ...

This paper presents the methodological process and results of the OECD 2017 Open-Useful-Reusable Government data Index (OURdata Index). It is meant to present the methodology and outline the data collection and verification process; discuss key findings of the composite indicators including overall country scores and scores by pillars and sub-pillars; and show the outcomes of different statistical tests to assess the robustness of the results, including tests to evaluate the sensitivity of the indicators to various weighting schemes. The paper highlights the relevance of the Index to support the design and monitoring of open government data policies and practices leading to socio-economic outcomes and to the improved performance and efficiency of public sector organisations.

The Best Practices are designed as a reference tool for Member and non-member countries to use in order to increase the degree of budget transparency in their respective countries. The Best Practices are organised around specific reports for presentational reasons only. It is recognised that different countries will have different reporting regimes and may have different areas of emphasis for transparency. The Best Practices are based on different Member countries’ experiences in each area. It should be stressed that the Best Practices are not meant to constitute a formal "standard" for budget transparency.


Spending reviews are widely used in OECD countries. They have become a core instrument for expenditure prioritisation and reallocation and a permanent feature of the budget process in many countries. Spending reviews provide governments with means to support the sustainability of public finances through systematic analysis of existing expenditure. This is particularly important as baseline expenditure has grown unsustainably in certain spending areas across OECD countries. This paper looks at how spending reviews are applied in OECD countries and presents best practices for using spending reviews. Every country is different and uses different approaches. However, there are common features to successful spending reviews where valuable lessons can be drawn from experiences across OECD countries which are reflected in the best practices.

This document presents the concepts underlying capital services measures, describes estimation methods and produces a first set of results. It also raises a number of outstanding conceptual issues in relation to capital services measures ...

We estimate the business-cycles of G7 countries, as defined by an ideal 2-10 year bandpass filter applied to country-specific GDP target series (GDP-BP). Since this target series cannot be observed in real-time, due to the symmetry of the bandpass filter, we analyze and compare the leading performances of the well-known HP-filter, as currently implemented in the OECD CLI’s, as well as of the Multivariate Direct Filter Approach (MDFA) relying on explanatory time series, as selected for current CLIs. The paper shows that efficiency gains by MDFA over HP are substantial along the full revision-sequence and they are consistent across countries as well as over time, when referenced against GDP-BP.
In 2010, the OECD published its Consumer Policy Toolkit, which provides insights into ways that government agencies responsible for safeguarding consumer interests could improve their policy approaches to ensure that any interventions they make are well-justified, timely and effective. To follow up, the OECD Committee on Consumer Policy is conducting a series of multi-stakeholder workshops to see how policies in key markets could be strengthened, using the framework and approaches developed in the Toolkit. Communication services were the topic of the first workshop, held in October 2011. This paper provides a summary of the proceedings, which focused on marketing practices, contract terms, and billing issues.

This document is aimed at disseminating to a wider public the data on employment by industry and occupations for ten OECD countries, that have been collected over the last few years in the context of analytical work aimed at exploring empirically the changing patterns of skills in OECD countries. The industrial coverage of the data allows them to be used in conjunction with similar disaggregated OECD databases, while the occupational detail and time coverage track the evolution of skills profiles over the last one or two decades. The data in this document have been declassified by the Statistical Working Party of the OECD Industry Committee with the understanding that they represent OECD Secretariat estimates and not official country submissions.

The country-specific data are not included in the paper version of this document, but are available on the OECD Web site at the following address: http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/prod/sti_wp.htm ...

The economic consequences of the COVID-19 crisis, particularly for fragile countries, have renewed focus on debt transparency, prompting international organisations and national authorities to step up their efforts to improve the consistency, comparability, scope and frequency of debt statistics. The report offers guidance and recommendations to improve debt transparency and outlines sovereign debt trends of selected countries, with a focus on marketable debt.

Rapid technological developments in the field of information, computers and communications are leading to significant structural changes in the economies of Member countries. Flows of computerised data and information are an important consequence of technological advances and are playing an increasing role in national economies. With the growing economic interdependence of Member countries, these flows acquire an international dimension, known as Transborder Data Flows. It is therefore appropriate for the OECD to pay attention to policy issues connected with these transborder data flows. This Declaration was adopted by the Governments of OECD Member countries on 11th April 1985.

This Working Paper presents the process, methodology and results of the OECD 2019 Digital Government Index (DGI). It has three key objectives. First, the paper describes the design, the content and the methodology of the pilot OECD Survey on Digital Government 1.0 and outlines the data collection and verification process. Second, it presents the outcomes of different statistical tests to assess the robustness of the results, including tests to evaluate the sensitivity of the indicators to various weighting schemes. Third, the paper presents countries’ composite results and scores by each of the six dimensions comprised in the OECD Digital Government Policy Framework. Lastly, the paper outlines the key findings and messages based on these results.

This paper gives an overview of the determination of non-oil commodity prices in the Economics and Statistics Department's INTERLINK world model. The practical problems which have been encountered, in particular in the context of full simulations are discussed. Based on a number of statistical tests, a new specification of the commodity price block is proposed. Indices of nominal commodity prices measured in dollars are estimated as functions of OECD economic activity and inflation, U.S. interest rates and oil prices. Compared to the previous system, the new equations are better behaved in a number of respects ...

The second OECD educationtoday Crisis Survey was carried out in 2010. Twenty-five OECD member countries completed the questionnaire. The results of the survey relies largely on the informed opinion of education officials regarding various aspects of the impact of the economic recession and fiscal crisis on education.

The main outcomes of the 2010 survey are the following:

  • The survey data does not portrait an education system dramatically affected by overall budget cuts. In countries where public investment in education has diminished, the effects are still very specific and concentrated, and vary across and within sectors of education.
  • In general, governments seem to be rather successful in protecting education spending. Although in some cases the impact on teachers and schools is significant, governments are trying to contain the negative impact of fiscal consolidation. Some countries even have increased funding for specific parts of the education system in order to enhance output and efficiency. Only in the few countries which have been severely hit by the crisis a more general expenditure cut has occurred.
  • The demand for non-compulsory education continues to augment, especially in vocational education and training, although the recession reduces the capacity of enterprises to uphold their training investments. As a result, higher demand is not systematically transformed in all cases into more training places.
  • The recession has not slowed down reforms in education; on the contrary, some countries have accelerated reforms. Alleviating unemployment, meeting increased demands, preparing future growth and fostering innovation are the most frequently mentioned policy rationales for education policies which are trying to enhance the education system’s capacity and efficiency.
  • Some governments are also taking into consideration the difficult situation of private households by increasing social measures to contain education cost.

This evaluation framework sets out recommendations for evaluating Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland. It discusses the evaluation activities to carry out, the outcomes to examine, the data to use and the methods to apply. It also sets the recommendations in a broader context by introducing activities and guiding principles related to evaluating public interventions and by briefly summarising relevant literature.

The report describes a long-term evaluation strategy to be followed once required links between administrative datasets are put in place, and it also outlines the steps that should be made already in the short and medium term to facilitate the data linkage and to exploit data that are more readily available. The report emphasises the crucial role of formulating an ex-ante evaluation strategy in enabling high-quality and cost-effective evaluation.

To account for differences among rural and urban regions, the OECD s established a regional typology, classifying TL3 regions as predominantly urban (PU), intermediate (IN) or predominantly rural (PR) (OECD, 2009). This typology, based essentially on the percentage of regional population living in urban or rural communities, has proved to be meaningful to better explain regional differences in economic and labour market performance. However this typology does not take into account the presence of economic agglomerations if they happen to be in neighbouring regions. For example, a region is classified as rural or intermediate regardless its distance from a large urban centre where labour market, access to services, education opportunities and logistics for firms can be wider. Previous work reveals great heterogeneity in economic growth among rural regions and the distance from a populated centre could be a significant factor explaining these differences. For the latter, the OECD regional typology is extended to include an accessibility criterion. This criterion is based on the driving time needed for at least half of the population in a region to reach a populated centre of with 50 000 or more inhabitants. The resulting classification consists of four types of regions: Predominantly Urban (PU), Intermediate (IN), Predominantly Rural Close to a city (PRC) and Predominantly Rural Remote (PRR). For the time being, the extended typology has only been computed for regions in North America (Canada, Mexico and the United States) and Europe. The extended typology is used to compare the dynamics of population and labour markets. Remote rural regions show a stronger decline in population and a faster ageing process than rural regions close to a city. The remoteness of rural regions is in fact a significant factor explaining regional outflows of working age population, confirming that this extended typology captures the economic distance from market and services. Remote rural regions appear economically more fragile: lower employment rates (Canada and Mexico) and economic output (Europe).

Following the end of the “Cold War”, the OECD has, since the early 1990s, been conducting “Outreach” activities (i.e. cooperation including technical assistance activities with non-Member economies), first with the Central and Eastern European countries in transition and now extending to many economies especially in Asia...

This paper assesses the OECD’s projections for GDP growth and inflation during the global financial crisis and recovery, focussing on lessons that can be learned. The projections repeatedly over-estimated growth, failing to anticipate the extent of the slowdown and later the weak pace of the recovery – errors made by many other forecasters. At the same time, inflation was stronger than expected on average. Analysis of the growth errors shows that the OECD projections in the crisis years were larger in countries with more international trade openness and greater presence of foreign banks. In the recovery, there is little evidence that an underestimate of the impact of fiscal consolidation contributed significantly to forecast errors. Instead, the repeated conditioning assumption that the euro area crisis would stabilise or ease played an important role, with growth weaker than projected in European countries where bond spreads were higher than had been assumed. But placing these errors in a historical context illustrates that the errors were not without precedent: similar-sized errors were made in the first oil price shock of the 1970s. In response to the challenges encountered in forecasting in recent years and the lessons learnt, the OECD and other international organisations have sought to improve their forecasting techniques and procedures, to improve their ability to monitor near-term developments and to better account for international linkages and financial market developments.

As artificial intelligence (AI) integrates all sectors at a rapid pace, different AI systems bring different benefits and risks. In comparing virtual assistants, self-driving vehicles and video recommendations for children, it is easy to see that the benefits and risks of each are very different. Their specificities will require different approaches to policy making and governance. To help policy makers, regulators, legislators and others characterise AI systems deployed in specific contexts, the OECD has developed a user-friendly tool to evaluate AI systems from a policy perspective. It can be applied to the widest range of AI systems across the following dimensions: People & Planet; Economic Context; Data & Input; AI model; and Task & Output. Each of the framework's dimensions has a subset of properties and attributes to define and assess policy implications and to guide an innovative and trustworthy approach to AI as outlined in the OECD AI Principles.

The OECD GlobalRecalls portal was launched in 2012 as a single window for governments to share information about product recalls worldwide. It has since developed into a significant resource, with over 24 000 product recall notices and 47 participating countries, and these figures continue to grow. This report discusses the implementation of a series of enhancements to the OECD GlobalRecalls portal between 2015 and 2019, as well as support provided to jurisdictions by the OECD Secretariat between November 2018 and September 2019 to use the portal’s new API functionality. The report will inform ongoing OECD work to maintain the Portal and any future work regarding possible further enhancements.

The OECD Guidelines on Pension Fund Asset Management set out a basic framework for the regulation of pension fund investment. The Guidelines start with the basic premise that the regulatory framework should take into account the retirement income objective of a pension fund. Two other essential aspects of the regulatory framework are the prudent person standard and the statement of investment policy. Regulations may also include quantitative limits, but only as long as they are consistent with and promote the prudential principles of security, profitability and liquidity pursuant to which assets should be invested. These Guidelines were developed by the Working Party on Private Pensions and the Insurance and Private Pensions Committee and were adopted by the OECD Council on 26 January 2006. They complement the "Recommendation of the Council on Core Principles of Occupational Pension Regulation", adopted by the OECD Council in July 2004.

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