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The G20 Rome guidelines for the future of tourism identifies key issues and opportunities to rethink and reshape tourism policy in response to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. It presents guidelines for action that are informed by the need to a) restore confidence and enable recovery, b) learn from the experience of the pandemic, and c) prioritise a sustainable development agenda in guiding future tourism. They are based around seven interrelated policy areas: i) safe mobility, ii) crisis management; iii) resilience; iv) inclusiveness; v) green transformation; vi) digital transition; and vii) investment and infrastructure. The G20 Rome guidelines were endorsed in the Rome Communiqué of the 2021 G20 Tourism Ministers’ meeting.


This report identifies effective approaches adopted by countries to implement the G20/OECD High-Level Principles on SME Financing, welcomed by the G20 Leaders at their Antalya Summit in 2015. It draws on participating countries’ replies to dedicated surveys. In total, 40 countries participated in the process, including 15 G20 countries.

  • 15 Mar 2024
  • Rodrigo Pizarro, Santaro Sakata, Miguel Cárdenas Rodríguez, Abenezer Zeleke Aklilu, Ekaterina Ghosh
  • Pages: 39

The Paris Agreement maps out a path for internationally coordinated efforts to curb global warming. At the centre of the Paris Agreement are Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that establish countries’ plans to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as adapt to the impacts of climate change. However, mitigation contributions defined in NDCs are different across countries in terms of target types, coverage of sectors and gases. This makes it challenging to assess progress on mitigation commitments. To complement the UNFCCC efforts, and facilitate the evaluation and monitoring of targets, this paper develops a methodology that harmonises countries’ 2030 mitigation targets in physical units and provide clarity on sector and gas coverage. The results are used to develop the GHG Emission Trends and Targets (GETT) indicators for non-EU countries and the EU-27 covered under the International Programme for Action on Climate (IPAC). The GETT indicators support the analyses of emissions' trajectories by describing historical GHG emission trends and comparing them to NDC emission targets, considering various reference years and indicators, including emissions intensity per capita or per unit of GDP.

The Bali Action Plan (BAP) language on “measurable, reportable and verifiable” (MRV) greenhouse gas mitigation actions and commitments for a post-2012 climate framework was introduced to apply both to developed countries’ greenhouse gas (GHG) commitments and actions (paragraph 1(b)(i) of the BAP), as well as to “nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity-building” (paragraph 1(b)(ii)). This paper provides an overview of current efforts to assess if GHG mitigation actions underway in different countries and regions are “measurable, reportable and verifiable”. The paper also assesses how such efforts could be improved, explores MRV options for different types of GHG mitigation actions, and highlights decision points needed to establish a post-2012 framework.

Several different types of GHG mitigation actions and commitments have been proposed for the post-2012 period. Some of these - such as national-level GHG emission limits - are already being used, with countries therefore already gaining experience with implementing, monitoring, reporting (and potentially reviewing or verifying the effects of) such actions/commitments. The extent of this experience varies both by type of action/commitment, as well as by country and sector. In general, Annex I countries have significant experience with monitoring and reporting national emission levels (reflecting their reporting commitments under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol). However, official reporting on other GHG-mitigation actions occurs every few years in Annex I countries and only irregularly in non-Annex I countries. Thus, significant new guidance would be needed if post-2012 MRV provisions were to focus on GHG mitigation actions rather than GHG emission levels.

In deciding a MRV framework, it will be important to consider measurement, reporting and verification issues separately (as for example some non-supported actions may be reported but not verified). A transition process may also be needed for some countries, in terms of what is to be subject to MRV provisions, and how M, R and V are to be carried out.

It is likely that a diverse range of nationally-determined mitigation contributions will be communicated by Parties under the 2015 climate change agreement. An effective post-2020 accounting framework to understand and track implementation of these mitigation contributions will therefore need to accommodate a range of contribution types and varying national capacities. With Parties now undertaking domestic preparations for developing intended mitigation contributions for the 2015 agreement, three key issues are: (i) what up-front information should be provided alongside intended mitigation contributions to facilitate understanding of the intended contributions and their expected impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions levels; (ii) what accounting rules or guidance for post-2020 mitigation contributions (if any) would it be helpful to agree or develop before 2020, to facilitate understanding of intended contributions and their expected impacts on GHG emissions levels; and (iii) the timing of key decisions on accounting issues, taking into account the agreed timetable for communication of intended mitigation contributions. This paper explores these questions in greater detail and highlights issues that Parties may wish to consider when preparing and communicating their mitigation contributions. Providing Parties with some structure for the framing of intended mitigation contributions could help simplify domestic preparations for these intended contributions, in particular for those Parties with lower institutional capacity.

The OECD Secretariat has developed a multi-region, multi-sector, dynamic applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to quantify the economy-wide and global costs of policies to curb emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The project is called the GeneRal Equilibrium ENvironments model, hereafter referred to as GREEN. The purpose of this paper is to provide a full technical description of the GREEN model, its data base and parametrisation as of May 1991. Work is continuing to extend GREEN in several different directions to make the model more policy relevant, and a revised version of the technical manual will be issued in due course ...

This document provides a full description of the GREEN model. It is intended to accompany the GREEN code, i.e. the implementation of the model, and to enable the user to understand the links between the theoretical framework of the model and its practical implementation.

The document lists all the model equations, provides a data dictionary to link the equation variables with the variables in the code, explains details which are traditionally bypassed in technical papers, and provides an explanation of the data base and the data management part of the code.

The document is organised as follows. Following a non-technical overview of the model in Part I, Part II presents the structure of the model with a complete description of the equations, the variables, and parameters which are part of the GREEN model. Part III explains the data management in GREEN ...

The OECD Secretariat has developed a multi-region, multi-sector, dynamic applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to quantify the economy-wide and global costs of policies to curb emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). The project is called the GeneRal Equilibrium ENvironment model, hereafter referred to as GREEN. The purpose of this paper is to provide a full technical description of the GREEN model, its data base and parametrisation as of April 1992. It replaces the previous version of the GREEN Technical Manual which was issued in June 1991 as Working Paper No. 104 ...

Integration into Global value chains (GVCs) provides opportunities for economic growth and development. However, the nature and extent of these opportunities differ across countries and sectors, and participation in GVCs can support processes of economic transformation in a variety of ways depending on the type of GVC. This paper explores some of the linkages between GVC participation and economic transformation at the sectoral level, with a view to assisting countries in assessing the various policy options for maximising their comparative advantages and their benefits from GVC participation. Three aspects of the relationship between GVC participation – defined as the use of foreign intermediates and integration into international production networks – and economic transformation are explored: i) sectoral differences in upgrading dynamics; ii) the role of services; and iii) resilience to external shocks. A range of qualitative and empirical approaches are used to explore and test the robustness of the relationship for three sectors presenting different characteristics in terms of their trade dynamics and links with economic transformation: mining and quarrying; motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; and transport and storage services.

This paper uses “centrality” metrics to reflect the changing structure of Global Value Chains (GVCs), contrasting central hubs and peripheral countries and sectors, and examine how these changes impact firm productivity. Using cross-country firm-level data from ORBIS, the paper finds that changing position within GVCs can play a role in the catch up of firms, but the results are heterogeneous across firms and countries. Firstly, becoming more central is associated with faster productivity growth of smaller firms, nonfrontier businesses, and of firms in smaller economies and in post-2004 EU member countries. And these correlations weaken with firm size and with proximity to the frontier, such that when one ignores firm heterogeneity and only considers average effects, there is no correlation for the average firms in the data. Secondly, the (centrality weighted) average productivity of buyers matters for the productivity of firms in our data overall, however this is particularly true for firms in large economies, for non-frontier and for smaller firms. The policy environment, such as flexible labour markets, better access to finance, stronger contract enforcement and simplified export procedures, appears to be important in translating the changing structure of GVCs into faster productivity growth of these non-frontier firms.

This paper uses “centrality” metrics to reflect position with Global Value Chains (GVCs). Central sectors reflect those that are highly connected (both directly and indirectly) and influential within globalproduction networks, whereas peripheral sectors exhibit weak linkages and are less influential. Applying these metrics to OECD ICIO data, reveals there have been profound changes in the structure of GVCs over the period 1995-2011. Whilst some activities remain clustered around the same key hubs as was the case at the start of the period (e.g. motor vehicles), for others there have been dramatic changes in the geography of economic activity (e.g. IT manufacturing), whereas other activities have become more influential for value chains almost universally (e.g. IT services). Several emerging economies and their industries have become more central to global production networks. We find this is particularly true of most peripheral industries of Eastern European countries, with their growing importance coinciding with the timing of their EU accession. Asian value chains have also undergone substantial reorganisation. In particular, the centrality of Japanese industries has fallen from an initial position of being the key hub within Asian value chains and the bulk of this fall does not appear to be due to the decline in size of the Japanese economy over this period. This is in contrast with trends in foreign value added content of exports of these Japanese industries, which increased over the same time period, illustrating that the centrality measure does not seem to simply reflect features captured by existing GVC metrics.

This work addresses the role of global value chains (GVCs), workforce skills, ICT, innovation and industry structure in explaining employment levels of routine and non-routine occupations. The analysis encompasses 28 OECD countries over the period 2000-2011. It relies on a new country-specific measure of routine intensity built using individual-level information from the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) survey, as well as on new industry-level Trade in Value Added (TiVA) indicators of offshoring and domestic outsourcing. The results suggest that employment in all types of occupations positively relate to innovation. With respect to offshoring patterns, a positive correlation is observed between the offshoring of inputs and domestic outsourcing with more routine-intensive jobs. Taken together, the results point to the existence of complex interactions between the routine content of occupations, skills, technology and trade, which do not allow for a neat identification of “winners” and “losers” in a GVC context.
Natural gas is of increasing importance in the energy mix of IEA Member countries. And yet this growing reliance on natural gas has been coupled with an increased risk of gas disruptions in recent years. Gas security is now an important policy concern for many IEA Member countries, and the IEA has sought to develop its expertise and analysis in this field.

This Working Paper looks at the possible remedies that are available for dealing with gas security concerns, and takes stock of developments in gas emergency policy in IEA Member countries.

The 2007-2009 period has been characterised by an oil shock followed by a financial crisis. Higher oil prices and the prospect of higher borrowing costs are likely to reduce the productive potential of OECD economies. The present study provides illustrative numerical estimates of the impact under different scenarios using a stylised model based on a production function. In a scenario where real borrowing costs for firms return to their 1991-2001 average as opposed to staying at the level at which the capital stock in place at the end of 2007 had been invested, the impact on equilibrium GDP could be in the order of 2%. If the real oil price stays at $80 per barrel, up from the $50 average at which the capital stock in place in 2007 had been invested, the impact on equilibrium GDP could be in the order of 1%.
This paper studies how public policies, including pro-women interventions, can raise female labour force participation and promote economic growth in India. The first part provides a brief review of gender issues in the country. The second part presents a gender-based OLG model, based on Agénor (2015) and Agénor and Canuto (2015), that accounts for women’s time allocation between market work, child rearing, human capital accumulation, and home production. Bargaining between spouses depends on relative human capital stocks. The model is calibrated and various experiments are conducted, including investment in infrastructure, conditional cash transfers, and a reduction in gender bias in the market place. The analysis shows raising female labour force participation with a package of pro-growth and pro-women policies could boost the growth rate by about 2 percentage points over time.
  • 08 Mar 2018
  • Nejma Bouchama, Gaëlle Ferrant, Léa Fuiret, Alejandra Meneses, Annelise Thim
  • Pages: 34

Discriminatory social institutions – formal and informal laws, social norms and practices – restrict women’s rights and empowerment opportunities across 17 West African countries. New laws and measures to protect and promote women’s economic, political and human rights have been accompanied by impressive reductions in gender gaps. However, discriminatory social institutions still constitute significant impediments to women’s access to land assets and restrict women’s physical integrity and decision-making power in both private and public spheres. This holds back women’s education and economic empowerment, thereby decreasing countries’ potential growth. The data and analysis based on the OECD Development Centre’s Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) aims to provide policy makers with the necessary tools and evidence to design more effective gender-responsive policies. Putting social institutions at the core of policy responses may open new and sustainable vistas to promote gender equality in national and regional development agendas.


This paper looks at how the impact of capital investment on gender equality can be taken into account during the budget process. Capital investment is a policy area that is often overlooked as gender-relevant. However, capital investment has a powerful impact on the way in which society operates. Ensuring that the design of capital projects considers gender impacts plays an important role in advancing gender equality.

It is time to deliver for women and girls. Africa’s growth and development agenda can only succeed if the continent is able to draw on all its resources and talents, and if women are able to participate fully in economic, social and political life. This will require intensified efforts to eliminate discrimination and promote equal rights. The strong commitment which has been demonstrated by African governments needs to be complemented by strong support from the wider international community, within the framework of a clear allocation of responsibilities, and the clear mapping out of specific steps and measures.

"Gender and Economic Reform" clarifies the complex relationship between gender and the way economies operate. It contends that incorporating gender analysis into the design and implementation of economic reform helps to promote the emergence of economies that grow sustainably, in ways that reduce gender inequalities rather than reinforce them. The analysis is particularly relevant in the current context in which gender equality is a proclaimed Millennium Development Goal and the Monterrey Consensus calls for gender sensitive programming. The paper is meant to improve policy makers’ ability to dialogue on what the relevant links might be between gender and economic reform and how to take gender into account in designing and implementing reform programmes. Throughout the document, a number of tools for integrating gender equality into economic policy analysis and decision-making at the national or sector-wide levels are presented. These tools focus on producing a new shared understanding of underlying economic and social relations in order to promote the achievement of a gender-balanced path of economic growth. The document is based on a large body of secondary material written over the past decade by gender specialists and other experts led by Professor Diane Elson et al. on behalf of the former Task Force on Gender and Economic Reform. It includes a summary of key concepts contained in six documents issued by the DAC Working Party on Gender Equality as Workshop Documents Nos. 1 to 6 (OECD 1998). It comes as a complement to the work conducted by that group on gender and sector-wide approaches and will be particularly useful in the light of ongoing work on gender-sensitive budgeting...

While greater account is increasingly being taken of gender in a variety of areas, little progress has been made in this respect in the transport sector. In both developed and developing countries, our societies are gendered in that women and men play different roles, notably because household chores and children are mainly the preserve of women, which reduces the time they have available for activities for which they are responsible and for the trips they need to make in order to perform these activities.
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