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A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the first in this series, presenting the Australian SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried out by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the second in this series, presenting the Canadian SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the third in this series, presenting the Danish SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the fifth in this series, presenting the Hungarian SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the sixth in this series, presenting the Japanese SHA-based health accounts.
  • 07 Sept 2004
  • María-Fernanda Merino-Juárez, Maluin-Gabriela Alarcón-Gómez, Rafael Lozano-Ascencio
  • Pages: 37
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the eighth in this series, presenting the Mexican SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the tenth in this series, presenting the Polish SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the eleventh in this series, presenting the Spanish SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the ninth in this series, presenting the Dutch SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the thirteenth in this series, presenting the Turkish SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the fourth in this series, presenting the German SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the seventh in this series, presenting the Korean SHA-based health accounts.
A project aimed at presenting initial results from the implementation of the System of Health Accounts has been carried by the Health Policy Unit at the OECD and experts from thirteen member countries. The results are presented in the form of a comparative study (OECD Health Working Papers No. 16) and a set of OECD Health Technical Papers presenting individual country studies. This volume is the twelfth in this series, presenting the Swiss SHA-based health accounts.

The purpose of the System of Health Accounts

  1. Changes in health systems and concomitant health policy questions have been challenging the traditional system of health expenditure statistics over the last couple of decades. What are the major factors accounting for health expenditure growth? What factors explain the differences between countries in expenditure growth? How to ensure sustainable financing? What are the major factors accounting for the differences in the structure of health spending? How are the changes in health spending structure and the performance of health systems related? In order to answer such questions, reliable, comparable and appropriately detailed health expenditure data are required. The System of Health Accounts intends to provide the foundation for health statistics that are able to meet these challenges.

Box 1

What is the System of Health Accounts?

The System of Health Accounts (SHA) proposes an integrated system of comprehensive and internationally ...

Credit Guarantee Schemes (CGSs) are a widely used policy tool to ease access to finance by SMEs, which, in some countries, ramped up in the aftermath of the 2008-09 financial crisis. The present study aims to improve understanding about the role, impact and sustainability of CGSs, by investigating their characteristics along several dimensions, such as the ownership structure and funding, the legal and regulatory framework, and the operational characteristics of the schemes, including types of services, eligibility criteria, guarantee assignment process and credit risk management. The study explores these dimensions, using detailed examples from OECD and non-OECD countries. It identifies structural and emerging challenges for the financial sustainability and the financial and economic additionality of these schemes, in a rapidly changing economic and regulatory environment. The study investigates in particular the case of Mutual Guarantee Schemes, which are created by borrowers in order to improve their access to finance.

All OECD countries have put in place policies that support SMEs and entrepreneurs. These policies differ considerably along a number of dimensions, including the policy framework in which they are embedded. This paper maps and compares policy approaches and governance mechanisms across OECD countries. It shows that there are significant similarities in objectives pursued and instruments used, and that countries use various governance models to ensure coherence. The paper was developed in the context of the OECD SME and Entrepreneurship Strategy.

This policy paper aims to improve understanding on how SMEs responded to the COVID-19 crisis and adapted to the new environment, and how different players in their ecosystems are contributing to their digital transition. The first part of the paper sets the scene on the digital transformation of SMEs, by providing an overview of key trends in SME uptake of digital technologies across OECD countries. The second part of the paper focuses on some of the main trends emerging from - or being strongly accelerated by - the COVID-19 crisis, including access to digital infrastructure, e-commerce and teleworking. The third and last section discusses international practices in SME digitalisation policies and presents original evidence from the “rescue” and “recovery” packages launched by OECD governments to face the crisis; as well as case studies and qualitative evidence from private-sector programme provided by partners of the Digital for SMEs Global Initiative (D4SME).

Despite potential benefits, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) lag behind larger firms in their adoption of digital technologies. Moreover, digital adoption by SMEs is to a large extent still confined to basic services, and adoption gaps increase as technologies become more sophisticated. The COVID-19 crisis has accelerated SME digitalisation, but barriers to adoption persist. The stakes are high, not only because SMEs make up most of the business and industrial fabric in most countries and regions, but also because they are strategic actors in large firms’ supply chains and play a key role in building inclusive and resilient societies. This Going Digital Toolkit note identifies the challenges that governments face in enabling SMEs to benefit from digital transformation and outlines key policy recommendations, including: 1) encouraging digital uptake by SMEs, 2) supporting SME training and upskilling, 3) strengthening management skills in SMEs, and 4) leveraging financial technology (Fintech) and alternative sources of finance for SMEs.

High and rising unemployment rates in the early 1990s have moved the employment question centrestage in the policy debate. Among the structural aspects, the relation between firm size and employment creation has attracted policy makers’ attention, triggered by empirical work on the United States which showed that the small business sector had been a major source of net job creation. This work and the rising interest by policymakers led to further studies of the subject, the identification of important methodological and data questions and a broader body of empirical research about the relation between firm size and job creation.

This document aims at identifying common results and trends from national studies, as well as identifying “best practices” of analysis and data gathering, and thereby promoting international harmonisation of such analytical work. Principal results from a survey of national studies include: (a) both the rates of gross job creations and gross job losses are ...

After a brief overview of current financing difficulties for SMEs and policy measures to support SME lending during the crisis,this article presents a literature review related to difficulties in SME’s access to finance during the crisis, against a background of a sharp decline in bank profitability and an erosion of bank capital that negatively affected lending. The articles reviewed are classified according to four main issues of interest:the impairment of the bank-credit channel and its economic effects;factors potentially attenuating the effect of a financial squeeze;the role of global banking in mitigating but also transmitting financial shocks; and,looking ahead,issues related to so-called “credit-less recoveries” that should be relevant in guiding policy makers in the current environment of financial deleveraging. All the results hold important implications for policy making given the bail-outs and the large injections ofliquidity by central banks during the crisis.
 


 

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