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  • 10 Nov 2023
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 184

This in-depth review of the energy policies of Uganda follows the format used by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for its peer reviews for member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of international best practices and experiences.

Uganda has set an ambitious agenda to develop its substantial energy and mineral resources, promote economic development, end energy poverty, and lead the country to a just energy transition. Uganda’s stated objective in Vision 2040 is to transform into “a modern and prosperous country”, ensuring a better future for its citizens. The energy sector will play an important role in helping Uganda achieve this.

The newly launched Energy Policy for Uganda 2023 will serve as a crucial tool and major contribution to the country’s ambitious agenda. Uganda already has in place much of the technical expertise, government institutions and policy frameworks to reach its energy goals. It has also made significant progress over the past two decades in providing access to electricity and expanding generation capacity, and further ambition is encouraged to achieve universal energy access by 2040.

This report assesses the energy sector and the related challenges facing Uganda and serves as a situational analysis that feeds into the development of the country’s Energy Transition Plan to provide policy recommendations and support the development of the energy sector and the path towards universal access for all.

  • 05 Dec 2023
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 108

Uganda’s Energy Transition Plan (ETP) is a strategic roadmap for the development and modernisation of Uganda’s energy sector. It charts an ambitious, yet feasible pathway to achieve universal access to modern energy and power the country’s economic transformation in a sustainable and secure way. The plan was developed by Uganda’s Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development, with support from the International Energy Agency, and provides the groundwork for the government’s upcoming Integrated Energy Resource Master Plan.

The analysis does not just look at Uganda in isolation but considers how global trends are influencing and opening up new opportunities, notably driven by rapidly evolving clean technology costs and shifts in energy and climate finance. Particular focus is paid to making use of the country’s considerable energy and mineral resources, and parlaying this into economic development for Uganda, a core pillar to ensure the pathway in the ETP is a just and inclusive one. The report provides detailed sector-by-sector analysis, including key targets and milestones, estimates of investment needs, and includes high-level recommendations for its implementation. While the focus of the report is from now to 2050, the ETP also highlights key steps to further the energy sector’s decarbonisation beyond 2050 and estimates at what point the energy sector is poised to reach net zero.

  • 13 Oct 2006
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 384

Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialised world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country’s independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This report examines how the Ukraine can meet these challenges.  It identifies three key priority areas for action: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine’s single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country’s growth and development. The report covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework and subsectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

Recent years have seen a number of initiatives which seek to provide a range of community services on school sites, including adult education and other social and welfare services. These developments aim at co-ordinating more effectively services which are usually provided separately while optimizing the use of increasingly sophisticated and expensive educational buildings and equipment. However, providing integrated services "under one roof" poses a number of practical problems. What is the rationale for integrated service provision? What are the implications for the local authorities, planners and architects in charge of designing school sites that meet new requirements? This report presents the main lessons learned from a conference held in Stockholm, drawing on case studies from Finland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Quebec, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The case studies provide a wealth of examples of solutions to the challenge of optimizing the use of existing schools by better integrating them into local communities and by promoting new synergies with other services.

  • 01 May 2019
  • OECD
  • Pages: 173

Middle-class households feel left behind and have questioned the benefits of economic globalisation. In many OECD countries, middle incomes have grown less than the average and in some they have not grown at all. Technology has automated several middle-skilled jobs that used to be carried out by middle-class workers a few decades ago. The costs of some goods and services such as housing, which are essential for a middle-class lifestyle, have risen faster than earnings and overall inflation. Faced with this, middle classes have reduced their ability to save and in some cases have fallen into debt. This report sheds light on the multiple pressures on the middle class. It analyses the trends of middle-income households through dimensions such as labour occupation, consumption, wealth and debt, as well as perceptions and social attitudes. It also discusses policy initiatives to address the concerns raised by the middle class, by protecting middle-class living standards and financial security in the face of economic challenges.


This book is a unique tool providing facts, figures and analysis of economic growth in OECD countries. The analysis focuses on the growth patterns of OECD countries during the last decade and identifies the fundamental drivers of growth. It also looks at how and why countries react differently to these drivers. It examines growth at the macro-economic level, industry level and firm level and also analyses the contribution of information technology (IT) at each of these levels. Packed with over 50 tables and figures, the book provides unique data to better understand the reality of economic growth.

German, French, Portuguese
  • 08 Oct 2008
  • OECD
  • Pages: 196

Drawing on OECD statistics in particular, ‘Understanding Economic Statistics: an OECD perspective' shows readers how to use statistics to understand the world economy. It gives an overview of the history, key concepts and the main providers of economic statistics. A detailed chapter provides a comprehensive picture of the main statistical activities of the OECD.  Finally, the book explores the crucial issue of quality assurance and the implications for public trust.

  • 11 Dec 2015
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 116

A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector.

India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity.
Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public.

The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  • 06 Nov 2017
  • OECD
  • Pages: 424

Understanding Financial Accounts seeks to show how a range of questions on financial developments can be answered with the framework of financial accounts and balance sheets, by providing non-technical explanations illustrated with practical examples: What are the basic principles, concepts and definitions used for this framework which is part of the system of national accounts? What sources and which methodologies are used for their compilation? How are these used to monitor and analyse economic and financial developments? What can we learn about the 2007-2009 economic and financial crisis when looking at the numbers provided in this framework? What can we learn about financial risks and vulnerabilities? This publication is intended for young statisticians, students, journalists, economists, policy makers and citizens, who want to know more about the statistics that are at the heart of the analysis of financial developments in OECD economies.

  • 17 Nov 2021
  • OECD
  • Pages: 128

Few small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) scale up, but these few fast growing firms are the major driver of new jobs added to OECD economies. This report helps policy makers get a grip on growth of those few SMEs by considering the transformation they undergo before, during and after their high-growth phase. Based on analysis of detailed firm-level data in a pilot project implemented for Finland, Italy, Portugal, the Slovak Republic and Spain, the report shows that SMEs in all types of places, of all ages and in all sectors have the potential to scale up. The strength of the potential does, however, vary. Getting a grip on growth of SMEs can pay important dividends as scalers contribute the majority of new jobs created by SMEs during their high-growth phase, but also continue to contribute positively to aggregate job creation and aggregate growth in turnover in the following years. A closer look at the characteristics of SMEs that scale up compared to similar “peers” that do not, shows that scaling is likely a strategic choice and includes investments and other preparatory transformation in the years preceding scaling up.

  • 20 Oct 2014
  • François Lequiller, Derek Blades
  • Pages: 520

This second edition of Understanding National Accounts, that provides a comprehensive explanation of how national accounts are compiled, contains new data and new chapters, and is adapted to the new systems of national accounts, SNA 2008 and ESA 2010, that came into effect in September 2014. It approaches national accounts from a truly global perspective, with special chapters dedicated to international comparisons, globalisation and well-being as well as to the national systems used in major OECD economies, such as the United States.

Each chapter of the manual uses practical examples to explain key concepts in national accounts in a clear and accessible way. And, each chapter concludes with a synthesis of key points covered in the chapter, followed by resources for further exploring the topic, and by a set of exercises to test your knowledge. It is an ideal guide to national accounts for students and other interested readers.

  • 09 Mar 2007
  • François Lequiller, Derek Blades
  • Pages: 490

This manual explains what GDP and GNI and their components are and what they mean. It shows how they are used and what they are used for. And it does this in an easily understood way. Opening with a chapter showing how national accounts concepts relate to macroeconomics, the books goes on to systematically deal with volume and prices, international comparability, production, final uses, household accounts, business accounts, government accounts, and financial accounts. It also has chapter on how national accounts data are gathered and the history of the national accounts system. Three special chapters examine national accounts in China, India, and the United States. Previously published only in French, this manual has been revised and expanded to have a truly global perspective. 


EU Funded Note

The precautionary principle has been an important aspect of regulatory delivery for nearly four decades. Now widely applied and with a global reach, the principle is often invoked whenever the scientific evidence surrounding the safety of a given technology is not conclusive. It is often applied where a safety risk is known to exist, but the probability and magnitude of harm are uncertain or unknown. The principle thus supports — and is an important element of — risk-based regulation. It is an important principle for the energy transition, in particular, though it is complex to apply in practice. The safety risk of technologies supporting the energy transition is immediate, which can lead regulators to operate and apply the principle over-cautiously — sometimes to the extent of complete inaction. This report examines how the precautionary principle can be used to support flexible decision making by helping regulators and operators manage risk through positive action.

  • 04 Sept 2002
  • OECD
  • Pages: 110

This book examines how new scientific developments in understanding how the brain works can help educators and educational policy makers develop new and more efficient methods for teaching and developing educational policies.  This new "science of learning" is providing insights into how to improve reading and mathematical skills and highlights the significance of the distinction between nature and nurture in learning and brain development.  The book focuses on the importance of developing a trans-disciplinary approach where teachers, the medical profession, and scientists work together.

Spanish, French
  • 12 Jun 2007
  • OECD
  • Pages: 264

This book provides new insights about learning by synthesising existing and emerging findings from cognitive and brain science and exploring how this new information might impact teaching, parenting, and educational policy making. It shows what the latest brain imaging techniques and other advances in the neurosciences actually reveal about how the brain develops and operates at different stages in life from birth to old age and how the brain is involved in acquiring skills such as reading and counting. It also presents scientific insights into what happens when the brain malfunctions in conditions such as dyslexia or Alzheimer's disease. 

China Education Daily nominated this book as one of the "100 most influential education books for teachers" on December 15, 2011.

French, Spanish
  • 30 Nov 2018
  • OECD, Korea Development Institute
  • Pages: 192

The erosion of public trust challenges government’s capacity to implement policies and carry out reforms. While Korea has achieved and maintained rapid economic growth and development, and performs comparatively well in several existing measures of the quality of public administration, trust in government institutions is relatively low. This pioneering case study presents a measurement and policy framework of the drivers of institutional trust and explores some policy avenues Korea could take to restore trust in public institutions.

  • 04 Jul 2007
  • OECD
  • Pages: 132

Education is vital for economic success, both at the national and the individual level. But education also has significant social effects. This report is OECD’s first attempt to gather and synthesise developments in measuring these social effects. The report focuses on two broad areas: health, and civic and social engagement. In general, better educated people are healthier, and take more part in civic activities. Why should this be so? This publication draws on findings from 13 OECD countries (Austria, Flemish Belgium, Canada, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom [England and Scotland] and the United States) to provide new models and insights into these important contemporary issues.


The multidimensional and intergenerational nature of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for integrated policies. Progress made in a particular social, economic or environmental area or individual goal may generate synergies and trade-offs across dimensions (spillover effects), and steps taken in one country could have positive or negative impacts beyond national borders (transboundary effects). Assessing the multidimensional and cross-border effects of policies has become even more urgent in the context of COVID-19 containment measures. However, there are gaps in governance and analytical tools for identifying and managing spillover and transboundary effects, posing challenges for governments in designing and implementing sustainability strategies. This book, a collaborative effort by the OECD and the European Commission-Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) presents a set of new governance and analytical tools, lessons learned from country experiences, and good emerging practices for managing spillover and transboundary effects in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

  • 23 Nov 2017
  • OECD, European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies
  • Pages: 16
  • 28 Nov 2019
  • OECD
  • Pages: 24

This profile provides a concise and policy-relevant overview of health and the health system in the United Kingdom as part of the broader series of the State of Health in the EU country profiles. It provides a short synthesis of: the health status in the country; the determinants of health, focussing on behavioural risk factors; the organisation of the health system; and the effectiveness, accessibility and resilience of the health system.

This profile is the joint work of the OECD and the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, in co-operation with the European Commission.

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