Browse by: "2022"


Title Index

Year Index

  • 23 Dec 2022
  • OECD, European Commission, CAF Development Bank of Latin America, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Pages: 374

¿Qué retos y oportunidades presenta la transición verde para América Latina y el Caribe? Esta 15ª edición de Perspectivas económicas de América Latina explora las opciones de política que la región tiene para repensar sus modelos productivos, transformar su matriz energética y crear empleos de calidad en el proceso. El informe señala que para que esta transición sea justa, se necesitan mejores sistemas de protección social y un diálogo abierto que ayude a construir nuevos contratos sociales sostenibles. Para impulsar esta ambiciosa agenda, el informe presenta distintas herramientas de financiación, incluidas las finanzas verdes, y aboga por la renovación de las alianzas internacionales.

  • 23 Dec 2022
  • International Transport Forum
  • Pages: 79

The ITF Road Safety Annual Report 2022 provides an overview of road safety performance for the 42 countries participating in the International Transport Forum’s permanent working group on road safety, known as the IRTAD Group. Based on the latest data, the report describes recent road safety developments in these countries and compares their performance against the main road safety indicators.

Detailed country profiles are available for download from the ITF website: https://www.itf-oecd.org/road-safety-annual-report-2022.

In spite of progress made to date and the significant long-term ambition announced by many countries, climate policy actions remain insufficient to meet the Paris Agreement objectives. While several international initiatives aim to track and monitor climate policies, there is not yet a “go to” place for a comprehensive inventory of policy actions and best practices worldwide. Such a platform would also ideally serve to compare policies’ effectiveness reflecting the diversity of country circumstances. Progress in this direction would help to promote an ambitious but globally more coherent and better-coordinated approach to emission reductions through a broad range of policies. This report lays out a roadmap for data and analytical work to support this aim, with a view to enhancing global dialogue and building trust on issues spanning climate change mitigation policies and their macro-economic repercussions. Key elements to strengthen the assessment and comparison of countries’ climate change mitigation policies across countries include: broadening and deepening the stocktaking of mitigation policies; extending and agreeing on an operational methodology for estimating the impact of these policies on emissions and on potential metrics to compare them; and assessing the broader economic effects of different climate policies.

In recent decades, federal and unitary countries have increasingly adopted or deepened regional governance reforms, especially in the OECD and Europe, but also in Asia, America and to a lesser extent Africa. Approximately two-thirds of countries around the world have increased the power of regions over the last 50 years. This trend has happened in parallel with countries increasingly embedding a territorial approach into policy-making at the national and subnational levels. This process, however, does not follow a linear path. The rationale behind regional governance reforms differs from country to country, and over time, leading to a broad spectrum of governance models with varying institutional and financing arrangements. Taking stock of these trends, this report provides key data on regional governance reforms and their drivers, with a focus on the role of regions in the COVID-19 crisis response. The report also presents an innovative typology of regional governance models across OECD countries and the multi-level governance instruments that enable sound regional governance and help ensure these arrangements effectively serve their purpose.

EU Funded Note

Like many other OECD countries, Greece has embarked on an ambitious digital transformation of its public sector to make it more effective, sustainable, proactive and people-centred. However, digital transformation projects present challenges in terms of governance, procurement, implementation and institutional capacities. This review explores how Greece could overcome these challenges to ensure that digital government investments address critical bottlenecks such as the procurement process and result in policy coherence, achieve value for money, and deliver intended outcomes. It also highlights the crucial role of whole-of-government co-ordination.

The scope of this report covers 88 public and private pension funds from 39 countries. This survey is based on a qualitative questionnaire sent directly to large pension funds and public pension reserve funds. It covers the infrastructure investment made by large pension funds and public pension reserve funds, but also their approach to environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors. It helps provide detailed investment information and insights which complement the aggregated data on portfolio investments gathered by the OECD at a national level through the Global Pension Statistics and Global Insurance Statistics projects.

  • 19 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 170

The report on Resourcing Higher Education in Portugal is part of a series of publications produced by the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This project has sought to develop a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on effective policies for higher education resourcing through system-specific and comparative policy analysis. The review of resourcing in Portugal focuses on options for reform of the core public funding model for higher education institutions in Portugal, the strategic steering and funding of the future development of the public higher education system and the resourcing of policies to support widened access to higher education. Based on analysis and comparison of the current approach to higher education resourcing, the review provides recommendations to support future refinement of policies.

  • 18 Dec 2022
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 62

This policy makers manual is prepared under the framework of the Global Environment Facility programme aimed at supporting low- and middle-income economies in their transition to electric mobility. It aims to serve as a guide for policy makers to effectively integrate electric vehicle charging into the grid, thereby supporting road transport electrification and decarbonisation.

The key steps can be summarised as preparing institutions for the shift to electric mobility, assessing the impacts on the grid, deploying measures for grid integration and improving power system planning. Each of these steps is informed by insights from various studies and inputs from international stakeholders, with recommendations based on best practices from around the world.

Better understanding multi-level governance frameworks and the scale of subnational government fiscal space can help countries cope with the different crisis and shocks, including the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia's aggression against Ukraine, but also address megatrends and persistent and long-standing spatial disparities. Increasing the knowledge on multi-level governance and subnational finance is also key to implement and monitor the Sustainable Development Goals.

After two previous editions in 2016 and 2019, the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment (SNG-WOFI) has become the largest international knowledge repository on subnational government structure and finance ever produced. It provides reliable and comparable information on multi-level governance frameworks, decentralisation and territorial reforms, subnational government responsibilities, fiscal decentralisation, and covers dozens of indicators on subnational expenditure, investment, revenue and debt.

The 2022 synthesis report presents internationally comparable data and analysis for 135 countries and provides insights into ways to strengthen the resilience of subnational public finance. It also offers a specific focus on the impact of the pandemic on subnational governments, the territorial dimension of recovery plans, property taxation systems, innovative subnational budgeting practices, subnational public-private partnerships, and a special chapter dedicated to 31 Least Developed Countries.

A Revisão do Centro de Governo do Brasil realizada pela OCDE oferece recomendações-chave sobre a consolidação do papel estratégico do Centro de Governo (CdG) do país na gestão das prioridades políticas e na melhoria dos resultados. A revisão examina os papéis, mandatos e as capacidades de coordenação do CdG. Ela fornece uma análise da capacidade do Brasil de traduzir compromissos políticos em objetivos mensuráveis e aprofunda sua capacidade de vincular planos estratégicos a resultados. Concentrando-se nas capacidades do CdG para contribuir com o processo orçamentário federal, ela considera planos de médio e longo prazo e como eles se alinham com a estrutura orçamentária e como o orçamento pode apoiar as políticas de forma coerente. A revisão também analisa o papel do CdG no monitoramento e na avaliação do desempenho de políticas de alta prioridade e como essas informações podem ser usadas para melhorar os resultados (ou entregas) para a sociedade. Finalmente, a revisão avalia como o Brasil pode consolidar e reforçar a comunicação pública para perseguir objetivos políticos e para promover um governo mais aberto.


The past decade has seen increasing international recognition of civic space as a cornerstone of functioning democracies, alongside efforts to promote and protect it. Countries that foster civic space are better placed to reap the many benefits of higher levels of citizen engagement, strengthened transparency and accountability, and empowered citizens and civil society. In the longer term, a vibrant civic space can help to improve government effectiveness and responsiveness, contribute to more citizen-centred policies, and boost social cohesion. This first OECD comparative report on civic space offers a baseline of data from 33 OECD Members and 19 non-Members and a nuanced overview of the different dimensions of civic space, with a focus on civic freedoms, media freedoms, civic space in the digital age, and the enabling environment for civil society. It provides an exhaustive review of legal frameworks, policies, strategies, and institutional arrangements, in addition to implementation gaps, trends and good practices. The analysis is complemented by a review of international standards and guidance, in addition to data and analysis from civil society and other stakeholders.

  • 16 Dec 2022
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 137

Coal sits in the centre of climate and energy discussions because it is the largest energy source globally for electricity generation and for the production of iron and steel and of cement, as well as the largest single source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The current energy crisis has forced some countries to increase their reliance on coal in spite of climate and energy targets.

Coal 2022 offers a thorough analysis of recent trends in coal demand, supply, trade, costs and prices against a backdrop of rising concern about energy security and geopolitical tensions. It also provides forecasts to 2025 for demand, supply and trade – by region and by coal grade. The report contains a deep analysis of China, whose influence on the coal market is unparalleled by any other country and in any other fuel.

The IEA’s Coal Market Report has been published every December since 2011, becoming the global benchmark for coal demand, supply and trade forecasts. It is essential reading for anyone with an interest in climate and energy.

  • 15 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 90

Many of Asia’s retirement-income systems are ill prepared for the rapid population ageing that will occur over the next two decades. Asia’s pension systems urgently need to be reformed to ensure that they are both financially sustainable and provide adequate retirement incomes. This report examines the retirement-income systems of 11 non-OECD countries in the region, comparing the results with a selection of OECD countries. The report provides new data for comparing pension systems of different countries. It combines the OECD’s expertise in modelling pension entitlements with a network of national pension experts who provided detailed information at the country level, verified key results and provided feedback and input to improve the analysis.

  • 15 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 216

EU Funded Note

This report is part of the OECD Tax Policy Reviews publication series. The Reviews are intended to provide independent, comprehensive and comparative assessments of OECD member and non-member countries’ tax systems as well as concrete recommendations for tax policy reform. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania’s tax and benefit system and recommendations for tax reform. It outlines the country's key economic and tax challenges and assesses the effects of taxation on employment. A special focus is given to the taxation of self-employed individuals.

  • 15 Dec 2022
  • OECD, International Labour Organization
  • Pages: 75

The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the long-standing skills shortages in the health workforce across countries. Equipping health workers with the right skills is essential to respond to future health crises, to prepare for increasing use of digital technologies, and to plan for demographic change. This joint report by the OECD and ILO aims to enable more resilient health workforces by helping countries to assess future demand in terms of both numbers of health workers and skills needs, and to prepare appropriate policy responses. The report provides a comparative overview of practices in 16 countries to anticipate future skill needs in the health workforce, and of how such information is used by policy makers and social partners to foster a better alignment with labour market needs. Analysis is based on interviews with institutions that are responsible for anticipating skill needs in the health workforce, a virtual peer-learning workshop and desk research.

  • 15 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 120

Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has darkened the short-term economic outlook for Finland and increased the urgency of transitioning away from fossil energy. The Finnish economy is likely to contract over coming quarters, weighed down by high inflation, tightening monetary conditions and curtailment of Russian gas supplies to trading partner economies, but to recover in 2024 as these headwinds pass. The war has also worsened public finances, delaying needed consolidation measures to rebuild buffers to cope with future shocks and put public finances on a sustainable path. While Finland is on track to meet its gross greenhouse gas emissions abatement objectives, there is scope to reduce abatement costs, notably by replacing inefficient measures by a comprehensive carbon tax in the effort-sharing sector. New measures will also be needed to meet the forestry and other land-use targets, which are very challenging. Rebooting innovation ecosystems would help to increase Finland’s low productivity growth. This will entail not only increasing R&D spending, but also establishing a mission-oriented innovation policy and a more diversified innovation ecosystem, strengthening synergies between export promotion and innovation, and above all, increasing the supply of skilled workers.



The OECD Policy Framework on Digital Security charts the economic and social dimension of cybersecurity, highlights the OECD approach to digital security policy and equips policymakers to use OECD digital security Recommendations in developing better policies. The Framework also identifies linkages with other policy areas addressed through existing OECD standards and tools.

The OECD has been at the forefront of international efforts on guiding policy makers in the area of digital security since 1990 and has become the primary international standard setter in this area. OECD Recommendations on digital security support stakeholders in developing digital security policies for economic and social prosperity, in line with the OECD’s mandate to help governments develop “better policies for better lives”.

  • 14 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 70

The ubiquitous collection, use, and sharing of data that power today’s economies challenge existing governance frameworks and policy approaches. Drawing on the extensive research and analysis conducted at the OECD on data governance, on countries’ policies and practices, and the OECD legal instruments in this area, the Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making supports policy makers in navigating three fundamental policy tensions that characterise efforts to develop, revise, and implement policies for data governance across policy domains in the digital age: balancing data openness and control while maximising trust; managing overlapping and potentially conflicting interests and regulations related to data; incentivising investments in data and their effective re-use. The operative part of the guide consists of a checklist of questions to orient policy makers as they develop and revise effective policies for data governance, based on possible policy approaches and real-life examples.

Data are generated wherever digital technologies are deployed namely, in almost every part of modern life. Using these data can empower individuals, drive innovation, enable new digital products and improve policy making and public service delivery. But as data become more widely used across sectors and applications, the potential for misuse and harm also grows. To advance data governance for growth and well-being, this report advocates a holistic and coherent approach to data governance, domestically and across borders. It examines how data have emerged as a strategic asset, with the ability to transform lives and confer economic advantage. It explains how the unique characteristics of data can pose complex trade-offs and challenge policies that pre-date the data-driven era. This report provides new insights, evidence and analysis and outlines considerations for better data governance policies in the digital age.

Under the BEPS Action 5 minimum standard, members of the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) have committed to counter harmful tax practices with a focus on improving transparency. One part of the Action 5 minimum standard is the transparency framework for compulsory spontaneous exchange of information on certain tax rulings. The exchange on tax rulings is a critical tool in improving access of tax administrations to information relevant to assess the corporate tax affairs of their taxpayers and to efficiently tackle tax avoidance and other BEPS risks. Over 135 countries and jurisdictions participate in the Inclusive Framework on BEPS and take part in the peer review process to assess their compliance with the transparency framework. Specific terms of reference and a methodology have been agreed for the peer reviews, focusing the assessment on five key elements: information gathering process, exchange of information, confidentiality of the information received, statistics on the exchanges on rulings, and transparency on certain aspects of intellectual property regimes. This report reflects the outcome of the sixth annual peer review of the implementation of the Action 5 minimum standard.

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