Browse by: "2018"


Title Index

Year Index

  • 21 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 180

This review examines the external systems in place to assure the quality of higher education in Brazil. It highlights the relative success of the Brazilian quality assurance model in regulating market entry for private operators in Brazil, which cater to over 70% of students. But it also calls into question the effectiveness of existing systems to monitor the quality of undergraduate programmes and institutions and the ability of public authorities to act decisively to protect students from bad quality education.

The report analyses the systems that regulate the launch of new higher education institutions and programmes and evaluates quality assessment mechanisms for existing programmes and institutions. It also looks at the structures allowing public authorities to intervene to end or improve poor quality provision.

The review offers policy recommendations. It proposes a more differentiated system of quality assurance. It also recommends significant modifications to the design and purpose of the National Examination of Student Performance (ENADE).

This work was requested by the National Commission for Evaluation of Higher Education (CONAES) and CAPES, the federal body responsible for quality assurance and funding of postgraduate education.

Portugal’s services markets are among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. As vital inputs into the business sector, services provided by professionals, such as lawyers and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs by firms that use them. However, structural flaws in the regulation make professional services highly expensive for firms, diminishing their ability to compete effectively. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation and efficiency within the professions. Against this backdrop, this report examines regulations for 13 self-regulated professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). From 923 pieces of legislation analysed, the report makes 348 individual recommendations for amending or removing provisions to improve competition, and makes a detailed inventory of the analysis underlying the work. Analysis of Portuguese legislation and professions was complemented by research into international experiences and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify overly restrictive provisions in order to facilitate the access or exercise of the professions, to benefit businesses and consumers alike. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and gives estimates of their impact. Provided all recommendations are fully implemented, the benefit to the economy from lifting the barriers in the 13 liberal professions is estimated at around EUR 130 million a year.

Portugal’s services markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD. Inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and inputs for the business sector. Regulatory restrictions limit the ability of firms to effectively compete in the markets, whether as providers or customers, while hampering innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport, and many ancillary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. The report examines 1 064 pieces of legislation and makes 417 individual recommendations for amending or removing restrictive provisions to improve competition, and makes a detailed inventory of the analysis underlying the work. Analysis of Portuguese legislation was complemented by research into international experiences and wide consultations with public and private sector stakeholders. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the provisions to benefit businesses and consumers alike. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and gives estimates of their impact. Provided all recommendations are fully implemented, the benefit to the economy from lifting the barriers in the land and maritime transport sectors is estimated to be around EUR 250 million a year.

  • 21 Dec 2018
  • International Transport Forum
  • Pages: 63

Safety Management Systems (SMS) helps managers better monitor and understand the safety performance of their organisation. Increasingly prevalent in the past two decades, SMS provide a rigorous framework for analysing hazards and controlling risks.

This report reviews the history and the workings of SMS and addresses the role of the regulator in an SMS environment. It discusses how to overcome obstacles to SMS implementation, introduces resilience engineering as a way to measure the effectiveness of SMS and finally examines how accident investigations can help address deficiencies in the SMS. Many of the concepts and notions brought forward in this report apply equally to all modes of transport as well as any industry that operates with inherent hazards that can lead to safety risks.

  • 20 Dec 2018
  • International Transport Forum
  • Pages: 80

This report presents policy options for extending the life of road assets by mitigating deterioration caused by trucks. Beyond traditional engineering responses, it considers the role of trucks in road asset deterioration from a broader, demand-oriented perspective.

Die Bekämpfung von Gewinnverkürzung und Gewinnverlagerung (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting – BEPS) ist Staaten weltweit ein zentrales Anliegen. 2013 verabschiedeten die OECD- und G20-Staaten in gleichberechtigter Zusammenarbeit einen 15-Punkte-Aktionsplan gegen Gewinnverkürzung und Gewinnverlagerung. Zusätzlich zur Sicherung der Steuereinnahmen durch eine an Wirtschaftstätigkeit und Wertschöpfung ausgerichtete Besteuerung besteht das Ziel des BEPS-Projekts von OECD und G20 darin, einheitliche und konsensbasierte internationale Steuervorschriften zur Bekämpfung von Gewinnverkürzung und Gewinnverlagerung zu schaffen, um das Steuersubstrat zu schützen und den Steuerpflichtigen zugleich mehr Rechts- und Planungssicherheit zu bieten. 2016 richteten OECD und G20 das Inclusive Framework on BEPS ein, um interessierten Staaten und Gebieten die Möglichkeit zu bieten, zusammen mit den OECD- und G20-Mitgliedern Standards für BEPS-Fragen zu erarbeiten und die Umsetzung des BEPS-Pakets insgesamt zu prüfen und zu begleiten. Über 110 Staaten und Gebiete sind dem Inclusive Framework beigetreten.

Dieser Zwischenbericht des Inclusive Framework on BEPS von OECD und G20 ist Teil der Folgearbeiten zu den 2015 vorgelegten Arbeiten an Aktionspunkt 1 des BEPS-Projekts zu den Herausforderungen der Besteuerung der digitalen Wirtschaft. Er erläutert die im Rahmen des Inclusive Framework vereinbarte Ausrichtung der Arbeiten, die bis 2020 zu den Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die internationalen Steuerregeln durchgeführt werden sollen. Außerdem beschreibt er, wie sich die Digitalisierung auf andere Bereiche des Steuersystems auswirkt und den Steuerbehörden neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet, die Serviceleistungen für die Steuerpflichtigen zu verbessern, die Steuererhebung effizienter zu gestalten und Steuerhinterziehung aufzudecken.

English, French

Вода – ресурс, крайне необходимый для экономического роста,  окружающей среды и здоровья человека.  Тем не менее, эффективное и результативное управление водными ресурсами является вызовом для  правительств многих стран мира. Проблема сложная и многогранная: миллиарды людей не имеют пока доступа к безопасной воде и надлежащему водоотведению; конкуренция за воду между разными видами водопользования  и водопользователями растет; и требуются значительные капвложения для поддержания и улучшения водохозяйственных систем, как в странах-членах ОЭСР, так и в других странах. Данная серия исследований ОЭСР по воде содержит анализ водной политики и руководства по экономическому, финансовому и организационному аспектам управления водными ресурсами. Эти аспекты обычно находятся в центре водных проблем и в них содержится ключ к решению сложных задач водной политики.
В мире имеется более 8000 крупных систем  многоцелевой водохозяйственной  инфраструктуры (МЦВИ), которая вносит вклад в экономическое развитие, а также водную, продовольственную и энергетическую безопасность. МЦВИ включают в себя все рукотворные водохозяйственные системы: дамбы, плотины,  водохранилища и связанные с ними оросительные каналы и системы водоснабжения. На примере Шардаринской МЦВИ, которая находится в бассейне нижней Сыр-Дарьи в Южно-Казахстанской и Кзыл-ординской областях Казахстана, данный отчет рассматривает варианты и наполнение стратегий инвестирования в МЦВИ, которые обеспечат высокую экономическую отдачу и потенциальную финансовую окупаемость проектов, причем делает это с помощью применения специальной компьютерной модели и на основе изучения опыта 15 различных МЦВИ, расположенных в разных странах мира.


The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.

The Outlook comprises four main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2019 edition of the Outlook looks at smart cities, with a special focus on transportation. Addressing traffic congestion, in particular, is critical in realising the potential benefits of urbanisation for growth. The third part of the report includes structural country notes offering specific recommendations for each country, and the fourth part discusses the recent progress made in key aspects of regional integration.

  • 20 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 132

Currently, Japan has the highest old-age dependency ratio of all OECD countries, with a ratio in 2017 of over 50 persons aged 65 and above for every 100 persons aged 20 to 64. This ratio is projected to rise to 79 per hundred in 2050. The rapid population ageing in Japan is a major challenge for achieving further increases in living standards and ensuring the financial sustainability of public social expenditure. However, with the right policies in place, there is an opportunity to cope with this challenge by extending working lives and making better use of older workers' knowledge and skills. This report investigates policy issues and discusses actions to retain and incentivise the elderly to work more by further reforming retirement policies and seniority-wages, investing in skills to improve productivity and keeping up with labour market changes through training policy, and ensuring good working conditions for better health with tackling long-hours working culture.

This report synthesises key findings on biodiversity and ecosystem services from the Environmental Performance Reviews completed for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru between 2013 and 2017. The report aims to provide a sense of the common challenges facing these Latin American countries, the strategies being used to tackle them, the gaps that remain and how these can be addressed. Focusing on Latin America is particularly pertinent given the great wealth of biodiversity in the region and the growing pressures on its conservation and sustainable use.

  • 19 Dec 2018
  • OECD, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Pages: 260

La quattordicesima edizione congiunta delle Prospettive agricole OCSE-FAO fornisce proiezioni di mercato per i principali prodotti agricoli, biocombustibili e prodotti ittici, nonché un capitolo speciale dedicato alle prospettive e alle sfide dell’agricoltura e della pesca nel Medio Oriente e nell’Africa settentrionale.

I mercati mondiali dell’agricoltura sono notevolmente cambiati dopo l’impennata dei prezzi dei prodotti alimentari nel periodo 2007-2008, in quanto la produzione è cresciuta fortemente, è cresciuta fortemente, mentre la crescita della domanda ha iniziato a indebolirsi. Nel prossimo decennio i prezzi agricoli reali dovrebbero rimanere bassi a causa della ridotta crescita della domanda mondiale di prodotti alimentari e mangimi. Le esportazioni nette tenderanno ad aumentare dai Paesi e regioni con abbondanza di terre da coltivare, in particolare nelle Americhe. I Paesi con risorse naturali limitate, con una lenta espansione della produzione e una crescita demografica elevata vedranno aumentare le importazioni nette. Si prevede un aumento della dipendenza dalle importazioni in particolare per il Medio Oriente e l’Africa settentrionale, dove la scarsità di terre arabili e di risorse idriche limita la produzione agricola.

French, English, Chinese, Spanish
  • 19 Dec 2018
  • OECD, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  • Pages: 218


 统计附件中预测结果和过去的趋势可以在  http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/agr-outl-data-en上查询。


Spanish, Italian, English, French
  • 18 Dec 2018
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 153

Coal remains a major component of global fuel supplies, accounting for 27% of all energy used worldwide and making up 38% of electricity generation. It plays a crucial role in industries such as iron and steel. But concerns about air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions cloud the future of coal. Coal 2018: Analysis and Forecasts to 2023 addresses these key questions and more:

  • Do China’s policies to limit urban coal use to ramp up natural gas and renewables mean it is abandoning coal?
  • Will the push for renewables in India lead to a peak in Indian coal demand?
  • How significant will the growth in coal demand be in other parts of developing Asia?
  • How likely is it that coal demand will continue to decline in the United States and Europe? Will this trend spread to other parts of the world?
  • Will robust demand and high prices for seaborne coal lead to new investment in coal mining?

This year’s annual IEA coal market report also presents recent trends and the IEA’s
five-year forecasts for global coal supply, demand, and trade.

Cette édition 2018 de la publication Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les dépenses en recherche et développement dans l'industrie présente les dépenses de R-D ventilés par secteur secondaire et tertiaire. Les statistiques sont libellées en dollars des É-U courants et constants et portent sur 31 pays de l’OCDE et quatre économies non membres. La couverture d'ANBERD inclut plusieurs secteurs, couvrant notamment de nombreux secteurs de services. Les données sont déclarées selon la classification CITI révision 4. Cette publication est une source unique de données détaillées sur la R-D industrielle comparables au niveau international, ce qui en fait un outil irremplaçable pour l'analyse et la recherche économiques.


This 2018 edition of OECD Research and Development Expenditure in Industry provides statistical data on R&D expenditure broken down by industrial and service sectors. Data are presented in current and constant USD PPP values. Coverage is provided for 31 OECD countries and four non-member economies. The coverage of ANBERD includes multiple sectors, with extended coverage of service sectors according to ISIC Revision 4 classification. This publication is a unique source of detailed internationally-comparable business R&D data, making it an invaluable tool for economic research and analysis.

  • 17 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 136

The world of work is changing. Digitalisation, deepening globalisation and population ageing are having a profound impact on the type and quality of jobs that are available and the skills required to perform them. To what extent individuals, firms and economies can harness the benefits of these changes critically depends on the readiness of adult learning systems to help people develop relevant skills for this changing world of work. In Brazil, the speed of population ageing is projected to be significantly faster than what has been experienced by most developed economies. At the same time, increasing integration into the global economy will create new opportunities and propel growth. But it will also affect the content of exports and the stage at which Brazil contributes for Global Value Chains (GVCs). Profound changes in the economy are to be expected in the coming decades. As these changes have not yet fully materialised, Brazilian policy makers have a window of opportunity to prepare for the transformations ahead. This report aims at providing policy recommendations, based on best practices internationally, to prepare the Brazilian adult learning system so that it is ready to support people in acquiring the relevant skills for the future.

  • 17 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 64

The positive impacts of social protection on reducing poverty and inequality and contributing to development are well evidenced. Establishing an integrated system facilitates the provision of a social protection floor, whereby individuals are appropriately protected throughout the life cycle. This is achieved not only by making sure there is a sufficient range of programmes to cover a population’s risk profile but also by sharing information on different individuals to ensure they are linked to an appropriate programme.

The Social Protection System Review is one of a small number of tools that serve to analyse how effective a country is in establishing a social protection system that responds to the needs of its people both today and in the future. The toolkit presents methodologies which can be implemented in any country, at any income level and by any institution. It is intended to generate policy recommendations that are actionable through national systems.

  • 17 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 160

Ces dernières années, la Tunisie connait des transformations économiques, sociales et politiques. Compte tenu de l’émigration importante de la population tunisienne et de la reconnaissance des apports de la diaspora, les autorités tunisiennes cherchent à mieux connaître ce vivier de talents installé à l’étranger, enclin à s’impliquer dans le développement économique et social de leur pays d’origine. Cette revue fournit la première cartographie de la diaspora tunisienne dans les pays de l’OCDE. En dressant un portrait des émigrés tunisiens dans les pays de l’OCDE, cette revue vise à renforcer les connaissances sur cette communauté, et ainsi contribuer à consolider la pertinence des politiques déployées par l’État tunisien envers ses émigrés.

  • 14 Dec 2018
  • OECD
  • Pages: 216

Over the past two decades, Austria has become one of the most R&D intensive economies among OECD countries and in the world, dedicating 3.1% of its GDP on R&D in 2016, the second highest figure in the European Union. To fully harness this R&D capacity, Austrian innovation policy needs to put a stronger emphasis on efficiency in transforming R&D inputs into impacts. To achieve higher impacts, Austria also needs to steer its research and innovation system towards leadership excellence in global markets. This requires enhanced international attractiveness for top-level researchers and talent, and a conducive environment for highly innovative enterprises. Austria could also benefit from strengthening R&D and innovation to support key transitions, such as digitalisation and Industry 4.0, and to tackle key societal challenges. The STI policy mix and governance arrangements should be adapted accordingly.

On 20 February 2019, OECD Council adopted the Recommendation on Countering the Illegal Trade of Pesticides to strengthen cooperation between countries and inspectors. A Best Practice Guidance was developed to provide guidance for inspectors and regulatory authorities on best practices for identifying and tackling illegal pesticides throughout the complete lifecycle of a pesticide, from manufacture, through formulation, trade and use to destruction.

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