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Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and optimise the limited pool of financial resources available among NEA member countries for nuclear decommissioning R&D.

  • 03 Sept 2014
  • OECD
  • Pages: 163

This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products
industry, specifically during application of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to components and additives used in radiation curable products.

  • 02 Jan 2006
  • OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Pages: 126

These fact sheets present the radioactive waste management programmes of 20 OECD/NEA member countries. They include information about the sources, types and quantities of waste as well as how and by whom they are managed. References for further information are also provided for each country.


The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK&M) across Generations initiative was launched by the Nuclear Energy Agency in 2011 to foster international reflection and progress towards this goal and to meet increasing demands by waste management specialists and other interested parties for viable and shared strategies. The RK&M initiative is now in its second phase, which is to last until 2017. Phase I culminated on 15‑17 September 2014 with the organisation of an international conference and debate on "Constructing Memory" held in Verdun, France.

The conference was attended by approximately 200 participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists, representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository.

In this workshop proceedings, Spanish stakeholders and delegates from 14 countries discuss current co-ordination of radioactive waste management decision making in Spain. Findings were shared from Cowam-Spain, a co-operative research project on the involvement of local stakeholders, the relationship between national and local levels of decision making, and the long-term sustainability of decisions regarding the siting of a centralised interim storage facility for high-level waste. These proceedings include the workshop presentations and discussions, as well as the rapporteurs' reflections on what was learned about policy making and participative decision making.

  • 10 Sept 2010
  • OECD
  • Pages: 204

Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies.


Radiological characterisation is a key enabling activity for the planning and implementation of nuclear facility decommissioning. Effective characterisation allows the extent, location and nature of contamination to be determined and provides crucial information for facility dismantling, the management of material and waste arisings, the protection of workers, the public and the environment, and associated cost estimations.

This report will be useful for characterisation practitioners who carry out tactical planning, preparation, optimisation and implementation of characterisation to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of associated materials and waste. It compiles recent experience from NEA member countries in radiological characterisation, including from international experts, international case studies, an international conference, and international standards and guidance. Using this comprehensive evidence base, the report identifies relevant good practice and provides practical advice covering all stages of the characterisation process.

  • 16 Jun 2000
  • OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Pages: 128

Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study of the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options: one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant.

A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert team is provided in annex.

  • 03 Mar 2016
  • OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Pages: 117

Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19th century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science.

This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances.

  • 26 May 2003
  • OECD, Nuclear Energy Agency
  • Pages: 32

The system of radiological protection is currently being revised in order to make it simpler, clearer and more responsive to stakeholder needs. During this evolution process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment. It was in this context that the NEA organised, in close collaboration with the International Commission on Radiological Protection, a forum on radiological protection of the environment.

This report summarises the key issues discussed at the forum. They include sustainable development, identification of what to protect, the definition of detriment, the necessary level of regulation, an integrated approach to protection, the use of similar approaches for humans and the environment, practical foundations for a system of environmental protection, and consequences in terms of training.


The international system of radiological protection is being revised to make it more coherent and concise. During the revision process, particular attention is given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment in addition to that of human beings. These proceedings comprise the views of a broad range of invited speakers, including policy makers, regulators, radiation protection and environmental protection professionals, industry, social scientists and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations.

GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste.

Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, "Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media" held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed.

In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions.

  • 09 Oct 1998
  • European Conference of Ministers of Transport
  • Pages: 148

Europe's railways are going through a period of radical restructuring in the drive to improve their efficiency and competitiveness. The emphasis is on fostering commercial freedom through a clearer separation of the roles of the State and of rail enterprises and through a progressive opening of access to rail infrastructure. This report examines reforms in over 30 countries from the Atlantic to the Urals, characterizing restructuring in terms of management independence, separation of infrastructure from operations and rights of access to rail infrastructure.

  • 25 Jan 2001
  • European Conference of Ministers of Transport
  • Pages: 134

This report examines the form regulation should take in rail freight markets to promote efficiency in railways and the wider economy. It analyses issues of monopoly, scale economies, competition, mergers, ownership and the structure of the rail industry. Experience in North America, Australia, Japan, the European Union and countries from eastern and western Europe is reviewed. The need for regulation differs by market and, together with political constraints, this means that regulatory models can not be transferred wholesale from one continent to another. However, each region provides important lessons for reforms currently under consideration in all ECMT and OECD countries.

  • 16 Nov 2005
  • European Conference of Ministers of Transport
  • Pages: 130

Over the last few years, much progress has been made in developing rail charges to ensure non-discriminatory access to, and efficient use of national rail networks. But in Europe the international dimension is still missing, particularly in terms of the freight market. Integration of European markets should provide great opportunities for rail freight transport to grow.

This report shows how barriers to this growth – arising from differences in the way trains pay to use national networks – can be overcome. It recommends moving to a set of simple charges for freight that create similar incentives for the management and planning of train operations across national borders.

  • 24 Jul 2003
  • OECD
  • Pages: 48

This paper, prepared by the OECD and the Development Research Center under the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (DRC), discusses principles for reforming the Chinese railway, based on experience of rail reform in OECD countries. This paper draws on materials presented at a seminar held in Beijing on 28-29 January 2002.

  • 18 Dec 2020
  • OECD
  • Pages: 169

This report provides examples and recommendations to help overcome obstacles to engage low-skilled workers and their employers in skills development. England has implemented impressive measures aimed at helping workers and employers to upskill. Nonetheless, there remains room for improvement. More can be done to identify workers with low basic skills, raise awareness of why improving those skills is important, increase the accessibility to relevant courses, ensure these courses are flexible enough to accommodate adult learners who are already employed, and finally make the provision relevant to career aspirations.

This report urges England to establish and promote a vision for raising the skills of low-skilled workers, identify their needs more systematically, and provide targeted guidance and information to them and their employers. It highlights that accessible and flexible adult learning opportunities in the workplace, home, community and by other means such as online and distance learning can better meet the varied needs of low-skilled workers. It also makes the case for the use of contextualised learning approaches, which create connections between basic skills and vocational context, and a more effective use of basic skills in workplaces to maintain, develop and realise the benefits of prior skills investments.

  • 18 Jun 2021
  • OECD
  • Pages: 8

Enabling effective, joint donor responses to corruption is a complex task that requires careful management of potential tensions and trade-offs. This guidance helpsdevelopment agencies and their staff operating in countries that receive official development assistance (ODA) to formulate co-ordinated responses to allegations of significant corruption. It provides a set of illustrative questions to facilitate joint donor responses in the immediate aftermath of incidents of corruption, so as to prevent slow, contradictory or ill-informed reactions. It serves as a practical tool for implementing the OECD Council Recommendation for Development Co-operation Actors on Managing the Risk of Corruption.

Spanish, French

"Re-powering" refers to the process of replacing older power stations with ones that are more efficient and more powerful, but the term also lends itself to market design. To facilitate the transition to a low-carbon economy, electricity markets will need to be "re-powered": older market frameworks must be replaced with ones suitable for decarbonisation while ensuring a secure electricity supply. Market rules need to be modernised and better matched with lowcarbon policies while keeping the same overall market architecture.

Re-powering electricity markets can be done in several ways, depending on the existing market design or regulatory framework. Changes can be as limited as increasing the temporal or geographical resolution of existing markets or putting a price on scarcity, or as extensive as creating short-term markets and incorporating policies to increase renewables and reduce carbon emissions as part of a consistent market framework.

Re-Powering Markets brings together today’s best practices in new electricity market design and details the most effective and efficient ways for re-powering electricity markets to address the 21st century challenges of transitioning to low-carbon electricity.

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