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This guide provides a framework to strengthen the role of development co-operation for mobilising foreign direct investment (FDI) and enhancing its positive impact in developing countries. The guide reviews a broad range of financial and technical solutions for enhancing the impact of FDI on sustainable development, and outlines ways donors can consider the impact of FDI on their strategies, thus supporting the design, implementation and monitoring of FDI-related assistance.

  • 08 Jun 2022
  • OECD
  • Pages: 196

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an important source of finance for governments looking to meet global commitments on sustainable development. But, beyond the quantity of FDI, its quality also matters. The FDI Qualities Policy Toolkit complements the OECD Policy Framework for Investment by providing more detailed and tailored guidance on priorities for policy and institutional reforms that can enhance the impacts of investment in four areas of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): productivity and innovation, job quality and skills, gender equality, and decarbonisation.

Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Austria provides the knowledge and financial resources needed to stimulate the economy and sustainable development. In addition, the activities and employment practices of foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises influence the creation and quality of jobs, including for women. This report asseses gender equality and women's empowerment in the Austrian labour market. It then examines the impact of FDI on several dimensions of gender equality, including employment, wages, skills development, career progression and entrepreneurship. It also briefly explores areas for policy consideration.

This report provides policy recommendations on how to strengthen the economic, social and environmental benefits of foreign direct investment (FDI). It provides an extensive assessment on how FDI contributes to Chile’s economic diversification into sustainable and knowledge-intensive activities (e.g. green hydrogen, information technology), and also assesses the policy and regulatory framework influencing the impact of FDI on sustainable development in Chile.


EU Funded Note

The FDI Qualities Review of Croatia provides policy recommendations on the design and implementation of a new strategic framework for investment promotion and facilitation in Croatia. It provides an assessment of how foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to sustainable development, including productivity and innovation, job quality and skills development, decarbonisation and regional development. It also examines the institutional and policy framework for investment promotion and facilitation at national and subnational levels. It gives an overview of Croatia’s investment incentives regime, focusing on the effective design and implementation of tax incentives. The report indicates potential areas for institutional and policy reform to improve Croatia’s investment climate and strengthen the economic, social and environmental benefits of FDI.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) provides an important source of financing in Jordan but its reform momentum needs to be sustained and deepened so that the benefits of investment can be shared more widely across society. This report examines how FDI can help Jordan meet Sustainable Development Goals in areas of productivity and innovation, job quality and skills, gender equality and decarbonisation. It provides an overview of the country’s institutional framework for investment and sustainable development and analyses arrangements to ensure policy coordination, stakeholder consultation and evaluation of policy impacts. It also examines the mix of government policies that are currently in place to attract the investment that contributes to sustainable development, noting areas for priority policy reforms.

  • 31 May 2002
  • Byung-Hwa Lee
  • Pages: 144

This book illustrates Korea's experience with outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and shows that the ancillary benefits of such investment -- knowledge and management transfer, market acquisition and skills enhancement -- can be substantial for individual firms. Moreover, the resulting increased robustness of these enterprises contributes to the strength and stability of the economy as a whole. While it is true that inward FDI carries similar benefits, outward FDI -- driven by the prerogatives of the domestic company -- is integrated into existing business plans and strategies, and therefore constitutes a more active policy.

No experience is directly transferable, but the Korean case shows that there is a large potential for other emerging economies to gain from FDI flows and that the initial costs from lost internal investment are largely outweighed by the medium-term benefits.


The WTO plays an important role in supporting efforts to achieve international regulatory cooperation (IRC) and to facilitate trade. First, the WTO provides a multilateral framework for trade among its 164 members, with a view to ensuring that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. Second, the WTO’s Agreements provide important legal disciplines, helping to promote good regulatory practice and IRC at the domestic level as a means of reducing unnecessary barriers to trade.

This publication highlights how the WTO’s Agreements on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and the work of their related Committees promote opportunities for regulatory cooperation among governments and ease trade frictions. It demonstrates how members’ notification of draft measures, harmonisation of measures with international standards, discussion of specific trade concerns and other practices help to facilitate global trade in goods. The study also makes recommendations on how to benefit further from the transparency and cooperation opportunities provided by the TBT and SPS Agreements.

To support Mexico’s supreme audit institution, the ASF (Auditoría Superior de la Federación), in fulfilling its mandate, this report analyses good practices in OECD countries for incorporating governance issues into public works audits. It provides examples and assesses different strategic considerations for ASF’s infrastructure audit organisation and practices, including objectives and resources. Finally, it analyses infrastructure auditing practices in the context of emergencies.


This study assesses the use of economic instruments for water resources management in Georgia and considers options for reform following the 2014 signature of an Association Agreement with the EU committing to alignment with the EU’s Water Framework Directive. This includes the systematic use of economic instruments, including water pricing, to recover the cost of water services provided to households, industry and farmers, among other measures.

Three main economic instruments are recommended in this study: 1) the introduction of a licensing regime and charges for both surface water and groundwater abstraction, 2) the restoration of a licencing and charging regime for all forms of water pollution, and 3) more rigorous enforcement of these measures, including more active monitoring and higher fines for offenders. Implementing these measures will be greatly facilitated by the enactment of the new Water Law now being examined by the government of Georgia.

Korea faces an extraordinary ageing challenge. Korea will age much faster than other OECD countries: in 2000, about 7% of Korea’s population were over 65; in 2050, senior citizens will constitute about 37% of Korea’s population. Population ageing will unfold at high speed, firstly because of the dramatic increase in life expectancy from just over 52 years in 1960 to over 77 years in 2004. a major cause of this was the spectacular decrease in infant mortality rates from 45 infants per 1000 live births in 1970 to 5.3 in 2002. The second cause of population ageing is the sharp decline in birth rates from close to 3 children per woman in 1975 to less than 1.2 in 2004. Reduced child mortality rates and increased life expectancy are indicators of the success of the Korean economy and society. However, the decline in fertility rates in Korea is evidence of strains in society which will damage prosperity in the future.


Population ageing on this scale will inevitably lead to a huge increase in spending on old-age income support and health care, and will also require the development of a public family policy which supports the reconciliation of work and care commitments of workers. To successfully meet the ageing challenge, the OECD believes that three policy objectives must be targeted. First, the decline in the working-age population needs to be slowed. Second, working opportunities need to be extended.  Third, affordable and sustainable pension and health care policies must be implemented. This volume looks at existing Korean family, health and pension policies from an international perspective, considers them in view of the emerging policy challenges, and outlines some of the policy options that are available to policy makers in Korea.

  • 02 Oct 2000
  • Adèle Woods
  • Pages: 96

NGOs have moved out of the "amateur" world in which they were once confined into, in many cases, highly professional activities. This statistical analysis demonstrates that there are thousands of development NGOs in European countries with as much as $7.3 billion at their disposal. Supported by a large number of tables and graphs, as well as detailed, individual country surveys, the author provides the first-ever such study of what has become a late-twentieth, early twenty-first century phenomenon. When the results of the study are extrapolated to OECD Development Assistance Committee members as a whole, they suggest that the total income of NGOs would amount to almost $16 billion, a figure three times that estimated by organisations such as the World Bank. Depending on the country, up to half of this income comes from official sources, implying that NGOs have become major partners for governments in the development field.


Rising disinformation has far-reaching consequences in many policy areas ranging from public health to national security. It can cast doubt on factual evidence, jeopardise the implementation of public policies and undermine people's trust in the integrity of democratic institutions. This report explores how to respond to these challenges and reinforce democracy. It presents an analytical framework to guide countries in the design of policies, looking at three complementary dimensions: implementing policies to enhance the transparency, accountability, and plurality of information sources; fostering societal resilience to disinformation; and upgrading governance measures and public institutions to uphold the integrity of the information space.

Spanish, French
  • 16 Jan 2003
  • OECD
  • Pages: 84

In most OECD countries, farm household incomes figure prominently among the wide and growing range of concerns described as motivating policy interventions in agriculture. The first part of this report provides an overview of the income situation of farm households and examines the influence of agricultural and of tax and social security policies on them. The second part investigates more specifically how efficient some of the most commonly used policy interventions are at transferring income to farm households.

  • 23 Feb 2016
  • OECD
  • Pages: 160

This report looks at farm management practices with green growth potential, from farmer-led innovations (such as those directly linked to soil and water, Integrated Pest Management, organic farming) to science-led technologies (such as biotechnology and precision agriculture). Global food demand can only be met in a sustainable way if new forms of agricultural production and innovative technologies can be unlocked to increase the productivity, stability, and resilience of production systems with goals beyond just raising yields, including saving water and energy, reducing risk, improving product quality, protecting the environment and climate change mitigation.

  • 05 Mar 2012
  • OECD
  • Pages: 84

This study examines the broad range of factors driving farm management decisions that can improve the environment, including drawing on the experiences of OECD countries. It identifies policy options that would contribute to a sustainable and resilient agricultural sector in the context of climate change.


Land is a key input into agricultural production and the agricultural sector remains the main user of rural land in most OECD countries. How land is managed in agriculture, and the conversion of farmland to non-agricultural uses, are likely to have implications not only for the provision of food, but also for the supply of public goods such as rural amenities, as well as for the quantity and quality of water. Changes in agricultural, agri-environmental, land-use, and regional policies – together with factors such as climate and demographic changes – increasingly affect land use and management choices. This report examines the impact of several policies on farmland conversion using a combination of economic analysis and empirical case studies.

This report maps strategies, governance tools, institutional settings and innovative approaches used by governments across the OECD to drive and support society-wide gender equality goals. It covers all state institutions, including legislatures and judiciaries, and discusses the challenges faced by OECD countries in achieving long-lasting impact. Finally, the report provides policy guidance for state institutions, supported by examples of what works across the OECD. This report establishes a baseline for monitoring progress, based on the 2015 OECD Recommendation of the Council on Gender Equality in Public Life.


Safety assessments of disposal sites for radioactive waste involve analyses of potential releases of radionuclides from the disposed waste and subsequent transport to the human environment. An important stage of assessment is the identification and documentation of all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that may be relevant to long-term safety. This report provides an international compilation of FEPs as well as a basis for selecting the FEPs that should be included in safety analyses.

  • 11 Sept 2014
  • OECD, The World Bank
  • Pages: 96

Corruption has a devastating impact on developing and transition countries, with estimates of $20 billion to $40 billion per year stolen by public officials, a figure equivalent to 20 to 40 percent of official development assistance flows. The return of the proceeds of corruption— asset recovery—can have a significant development impact. Returns can be used directly for development purposes, such as improvements in the health and education sectors and reintegration of displaced persons, with additional benefits of improved international co-operation and enhanced capacity of law enforcement and financial management officials. Development agencies and those committed to development effectiveness have a role in the asset recovery process. They have made international commitments to fight corruption and recover the proceeds of corruption in the Third High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness: Accra Agenda for Actions, held in Accra, Ghana, in 2008, and in the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness: Partnership for Effective Development, held in Busan, Republic of Korea, in 2011. Despite these efforts, there has been difficulty in translating these commitments into concrete action. This StAR-OECD publication reports on how OECD countries are performing on asset recovery.

Drawing on data collected between 2006 and 2012, the report provides recommendations and good practices, and suggests specific actions for development agencies. Few and Far is primarily intended to support the anti-corruption and asset recovery efforts of developed and developing jurisdictions, with a particular focus on actions for development agencies. In addition, civil society organisations engaged in governance and development issues may wish to use these findings and recommendations in their reports and advocacy efforts.

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