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Members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) have long recognised that sustainable development must reflect the needs of women and men. These Guidelines from 1998 aim to advance gender issues in their development co-operation programmes, furthering the contribution of the DAC Expert Group on Women in Development to bringing gender issues to the fore.

Endorsed in December 2008, these Guiding Principles suggest concrete ways policy advisors and programme managers, in both donor and partner countries, can achieve better development results by improving gender equality and supporting women’s empowerment.

  • 26 Aug 2005
  • OECD
  • Pages: 166

This report is an attempt to improve understanding of the dairy sector through an analysis of the trade and economic effects of the main policy measures (subsidies) applied to it. In particular, it examines the effects of both milk price support measures and milk quota systems. The removal of individual policy measures is modelled in order to assess the impact of international dairy trade liberalisation on production, consumption, trade, prices, income, and welfare.

The primary focus of this report is the impact of policies and reform in the OECD area, although the consequences for other economies are also examined. In addition, this report offers economic insights into the workings of complex dairy policy measures and provides a discussion of the potential of the dairy sector -- globally and in individual countries -- as it adjusts to liberal trading conditions.

  • 17 Mar 2022
  • OECD, European Union Intellectual Property Office
  • Pages: 91

Illicit trade in counterfeit goods causes economic damage by reducing sales and profits as well as innovation incentives in legitimate industries. At the same time, some counterfeits can be of low quality and create significant additional risks, including health risks (fake pharmaceuticals or food products), safety risks (counterfeit automotive spare parts, fake batteries) and environmental risks (fake chemicals or pesticides). This study presents detailed information on the value of counterfeit trade in such dangerous fake goods, analyses changes in the volumes and composition of the goods, and maps key trade routes. The evidence in this report can be used to raise awareness of the risks of this trade and its implications for health and environmental policy.

This review introduces the background to and issues at stake in promoting equal partnerships in families in Germany.  It encourages German policy makers to build on the important reforms since the mid-2000s to enable both fathers and mothers to have careers and children, and urges families to “dare to share”. To those ends it places Germany’s experience in an international comparison, and draws from the experience in, for example, France and the Nordic countries which have longstanding policies to support work-life balance and strengthen gender equality. The review starts with an overview chapter also explaining why and how equal sharing pays for families, children, the economy and society as a whole. The book presents current outcomes, policy trends, as well as detailed analysis of the drivers of paid and unpaid work and how more equal partnerships in families may help sustain fertility rates.  The book examines policies to promote partnership, looking both at persistent shortcomings and progress achieved through reform since the mid-2000s. The book includes a set of policy recommendations designed to enable parents to share work and family responsibilities more equally.

  • 11 Jun 2007
  • OECD
  • Pages: 158
The OECD Data and Metadata Reporting and Presentation Handbook contains guidelines and recommended best practice for the presentation of statistical data and metadata disseminated by national agencies and international organisations in various dissemination media. The Handbook brings together in one publication relevant presentation guidelines embodied in existing international statistical standards where they exist. The Handbook also presents for the first time a standard set of terminologies and guidelines for the presentation of growth rates, indices and seasonally adjusted data developed by the OECD Short-term Economic Statistics Working Party. 

Sound and timely data and statistics are essential for designing better policies for better lives. When the right data are available and used by policy makers, they play a crucial role in managing crises, as revealed during the COVID-19 pandemic. They are also indispensable for transparent and accountable delivery of policies and services and to guide business and investment decisions in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The first 2021 edition of the OECD’s Data for Development Profiles is a unique source of information and insights on how members of the Development Co-operation Committee (DAC) allocate official development assistance (ODA) to statistical capacity development and strengthening data ecosystems in low and middle income countries. By providing a comprehensive overview of members’ data and statistical policy priorities, strategies, funding, delivery modalities and partnerships, the profiles serve as a baseline for co-ordinating international support and highlight ways forward for greater impact and effectiveness.

  • 06 Oct 2015
  • OECD
  • Pages: 456

Today, the generation and use of huge volumes of data are redefining our “intelligence” capacity and our social and economic landscapes, spurring new industries, processes and products, and creating significant competitive advantages. In this sense, data-driven innovation (DDI) has become a key pillar of 21st-century growth, with the potential to significantly enhance productivity, resource efficiency, economic competitiveness, and social well-being.

Greater access to and use of data create a wide array of impacts and policy challenges, ranging from privacy and consumer protection to open access issues and measurement concerns, across public and private health, legal and science domains. This report aims to improve the evidence base on the role of DDI for promoting growth and well-being, and provide policy guidance on how to maximise the benefits of DDI and mitigate the associated economic and societal risks.

  • 25 Sept 2021
  • OECD
  • Pages: 37

Industries and businesses are becoming increasingly digital, and the COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated this trend. Regulators around the world are also experimenting with data-driven tools to apply and enforce rules in a more agile and targeted way. This report maps out several efforts undertaken jointly by the OECD and Italian regulators to develop and use artificial intelligence and machine learning tools in regulatory inspections and enforcement. It provides unique insights into the background processes and structures required for digital tools to perform predictive modelling, risk analysis and classification. It also highlights the challenges such tools bring, both in specific regulatory areas and to the broader goals of regulatory systems.

  • 18 Jan 2012
  • OECD
  • Pages: 106

This report addresses the practical administration of transfer pricing programmes by tax administrations. Technical analysis of how transfer prices should be computed in accordance with the arm’s length principle is outside the scope of this report. Instead the report focuses on the practical experiences of a number of FTA member countries and some non-member countries. The report discusses ways in which the management of transfer pricing programmes can be optimised, so that transfer pricing audits and enquiries are conducted efficiently and in a timely manner, for the benefit of MNEs and tax administrations alike. It is concerned with the practical steps tax administrations need to take to correctly identify transfer pricing cases that merit audit or enquiry and then to progress those cases to as early a conclusion as possible. 

  • 10 Nov 2000
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 141

This volume describes more than 400 separate policy actions that IEA Member countries took to mitigate climate change in the energy sector during 1999. Listings are provided for each country with classifications of actions into five major policy approaches: fiscal policy; market policy; regulatory policy; R&D policy; and policy processes. In addition, policies are classified according to energy source and end-use.

  • 23 Oct 2001
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 150

This volume details more than 200 new policies and measures that were taken in the year 2000 to address energy-related emissions in IEA member countries. Actions are listed for each of the 26 IEA Member countries under five major headings: fiscal policy, tradable permits, regulatory instruments and voluntary approaches, R&D policy, and policy processes. In addition, policies are classified according to energy source and end-use. The volume’s introductory analysis puts current national activities into context. It provides an overview of current emissions and emissions-related policy trends, and also reviews other energy policy initiatives, including those in energy taxation, that have an effect on overall emissions and energy paths. The conclusion is that, while considerable action is being taken, more needs to be done.

  • 21 Nov 2002
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 154

In 2001 the 26 IEA Member countries took or planned over 200 energy-related policies and measures to tackle climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. This volume reviews the actions taken and describes them in detail. It shows how developed countries implement the commitments made under international agreements or at national level to reduce their emissions. The policies have been classified under six major headings: fiscal polices, tradable permits, regulatory instruments, voluntary agreements, R&D policies and policy processes. The introductory analysis provides an overview and assessment of recent policy trends.

These workshop proceedings deal with the local partnership methodology employed in Belgium in order to develop an integrated proposal to the national government to construct and operate a disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste that is adapted to local conditions. The partnerships were formed among representatives of local organisations in affected communities and representatives of the Belgian national radioactive waste management agency. Insights are provided into a unique - and so far very successful - governance approach to dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk.

  • 06 Jun 2017
  • OECD
  • Pages: 104

The OECD’s New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) initiative invited experts from inside and outside the Organisation to discuss complexity theory as a means to better understand the interconnected nature of the trends and influences shaping our socio-economic environment. Their contributions, brought together here, examine the assumptions, strengths and shortcomings of traditional models, and propose a way to build new ones that would take into account factors such as psychology, history and culture neglected by these models. The authors concentrate on the discipline of economics as such; the financial system; and applications of complexity theory to policy making and governance. They argue that a new narrative is needed to integrate the hopes, values, attitudes and behaviours of people into economics along with the facts and data economists are more used to dealing with.

Spanish, French
  • 17 Feb 2016
  • OECD
  • Pages: 100

Why do financial markets see so little risk, while companies that invest in the real economy appear to be much more prudent? How will we fund future pensions when interest on the products that finance them are so low? Where will the trillions of dollars needed to improve and extend infrastructures come from? How should international capital flows be regulated? These and other challenges are discussed in this collection of expert opinions on the social, economic and policy perspectives facing international investors, governments, businesses, and citizens worldwide.

Spanish, French
  • 21 Sept 2016
  • OECD
  • Pages: 168

To capitalise on the new international resolve epitomised by COP21 and the agreement on the universal Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires a renewed effort to promote new policy thinking and new approaches to the great challenges ahead. Responding to new challenges means we have to adopt more ambitious frameworks, design more effective tools, and propose more precise policies that will take account of the complex and multidimensional nature of the challenges. The goal is to develop a better sense of how economies really work and to articulate strategies which reflect this understanding. The OECD’s New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) exercise challenges our assumptions and our understanding about the workings of the economy. This collection from OECD Insights summarises opinions from inside and outside the Organisation on how NAEC can contribute to achieving the SDGs, and describes how the OECD is placing its statistical, monitoring and analytical capacities at the service of the international community. The authors also consider the transformation of the world economy that will be needed and the long-term “tectonic shifts” that are affecting people, the planet, global productivity, and institutions.

French, Spanish

This conference proceedings examines the most recent research and developments related to the impact of debris on emergency coolant recirculation.  Held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in February 2004, this proceedings had sessions on safety assessment and regulatory requirements, experimental work, analytical work, and industry solutions.  The proceedings present the papers presented as well as a summary of discussions that took place.



Debt Management and Government Securities Markets in the 21st Century reviews recent trends in the structure of OECD government securities markets and public debt management operations, and highlights the generic structural policy issues in emerging debt markets.

Over the years, OECD debt managers have developed best practices for raising, managing and retiring debt at the lowest possible price and acceptable risk, largely in the presence of persistent large deficits. New techniques have been developed to cope with the adverse consequences of running surpluses (pricing anomalies and lower liquidity in traditional benchmark markets).

This report analyses the impact of advanced electronic systems on primary and secondary markets. In the future, sophisticated electronic auction systems will enable institutional investors to bid directly in auctions, thereby by-passing primary dealers. Electronic trading systems will inevitably reshape secondary fixed-income markets.

Underlying these challenges is the growing number of OECD sovereign issuers granting greater independence to debt management operations, accompanied by an increased emphasis on risk assessment and risk management.

The report also addresses the introduction of new instruments (index-linked bonds and derivatives), as well as policies related to investor relations.

  • 24 Apr 2023
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 46

The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Institute of Energy Economic, Japan (IEEJ) have developed and published long-term decarbonisation pathways for Southeast Asia and Indonesia. This report provides a comparison of modelling approaches, quantitative drivers, and results from the IEA and IEEJ pathways, highlighting areas of agreement, as well as identifying and explaining differences, and thereby to derive implications.

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