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This report acts as a descriptive guide to the experience of digital identity for individuals and a potential departure for future work to realise the opportunities offered by trusted and portable digital identity. It presents the policy and normative context for digital identity, uses of digital identity during the COVID-19 crisis and the necessary enabling conditions for successful development and adoption. This report was originally submitted to the G20 Digital Economic Task Force in July 2021.

This Compendium takes stock of the use of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), fifth-generation mobile telecommunication technologies (5G), and the Internet of Things (IoT) across G20 members to sustain public service continuity and provide the basis for recovery from the COVID-19 crisis. It presents 120 practices in G20 members highlighting how governments can significantly transform themselves and make the best use of digital technologies and data to serve economies and societies better, foster international collaboration, and accelerate the development of the most successful use cases. This report was originally submitted to the G20 Digital Economic Task Force in July 2021.

  • 07 Sept 2019
  • OECD, United Nations Development Programme
  • Pages: 40

As the world's premier forum for international economic co-operation, the G20 plays a critical role in helping to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Based on robust evidence and available data, this report examines how the G20's contributions to the global goals across key sectors are already making a difference, while also suggesting where it could go further in leading by example to support the global goals.

Collectively, G20 members account for around 85% of global gross domestic product, 75% of world trade and 80% of global carbon dioxide emissions – to name just a few areas of the G20's influence. This report, commissioned by the Government of Japan in support of its 2019 G20 Presidency, takes stock of the G20's progress to date against its Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The report on the G20 Survey on Agile Approaches to the Regulatory Governance of Innovation showcases ongoing efforts of G20 governments to revisit how they regulate in today’s fast-paced global innovation landscape. Survey results show that G20 members are keenly aware of the far-reaching implications of innovation in terms of both challenges and opportunities for regulatory policy and governance. In line with the OECD Recommendation on Agile Regulatory Governance to Harness Innovation, they are taking important steps in that respect. To facilitate mutual learning as well as the diffusion of good practices, the present report provides a range of examples of the measures adopted by governments in order to accommodate innovation-driven disruption while upholding fundamental rights, democratic values and the rule of law, and ensuring a sufficient level of protection for citizens and the environment.

Over the coming years, significant infrastructure investment will be required to sustain economic growth and improve well-being in many regions and cities. Subnational governments will have a key role to help provide this infrastructure - they are responsible for almost 60% of total public investment in G20 countries. This G20-OECD Policy Toolkit, developed with input from the Asian Development Bank, aims to support inclusive and quality infrastructure investment by subnational governments across developing, emerging and developed countries. It outlines key elements of creating an enabling environment for subnational infrastructure investment. It then details common and innovative funding sources, financing instruments and investment approaches. Rather than recommending specific instruments, it provides a ‘toolkit’ of options for policymakers and practitioners. The Policy Toolkit is supported by 23 case studies.

  • 30 Nov 2015
  • OECD
  • Pages: 60

The G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance help policy makers evaluate and improve the legal, regulatory, and institutional framework for corporate governance. They also provide guidance for stock exchanges, investors, corporations, and others that have a role in the process of developing good corporate governance. First issued in 1999, the Principles have become the international benchmark in corporate governance. They have been adopted as one of the Financial Stability Board’s Key Standards for Sound Financial Systems and endorsed by the G20.
This 2015 edition takes into account developments in both the financial and corporate sectors that may influence the efficiency and relevance of corporate governance policies and practices.

Armenian, Turkish, Spanish, German, Japanese, All

This Roadmap provides a follow-up to the 2021 report to the G20 on Developing Countries and the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS. It takes stock of progress since 2021 and sets out key priorities. It also provides a Roadmap to guide actions by interested G20 members and other stakeholders to help developing countries to maximise the benefits of multilateral engagement on international tax, and capitalise on advances in tax policy and tax administration to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  • 08 Apr 2002
  • OECD
  • Pages: 93

This study recall the economic case that underpins the GATS, addresses concerns over the effects of the GATS, and points out some of the key negotiating challenges of the current GATS round.

German, French
  • 13 May 2009
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 424

By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers.This book examines how "smart" this equipment is from an energy efficiency perspective and what the potential is for energy savings.  It includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes.

  • 21 Aug 2007
  • Jeff Dayton-Johnson, Louka T. Katseli, Gregory Maniatis, Rainer Münz, Demetrios Papademetriou
  • Pages: 89

This report presents a summary of recommendations on how we can all gain from migration. They are the result of a multi-faceted project undertaken in partnership with the European Commission to rethink the management of the emerging mobility system. New ideas, based on an exhaustive review of past policy experiences in Europe and elsewhere, are offered for policies related to labour markets, integration, development co-operation and the engagement of diasporas.


Chile’s planning and governance framework has supported the roll-out of high quality and efficient infrastructure that has been a key enabler of the country’s rapid development over the past two decades. However, changing circumstances such as climate change, decentralisation and a greater focus on social and territorial equity now require a change in how infrastructure needs are identified and addressed. This review examines Chile’s infrastructure stock and governance standards in light of the country’s 2030 growth agenda and OECD benchmarks, and sets out how such change can be achieved, with a special focus on transport and water infrastructure.

  • 27 Jul 2017
  • OECD
  • Pages: 104

This brochure is published within the framework of the Scheme for the Application of International Standards for Fruit and Vegetables established by the OECD in 1962. It comprises explanatory notes and illustrations to facilitate the uniform interpretation of the garlic Standard. This brochure describes and demonstrates the quality parameters of garlic, and is accompanied by high quality photographs. It is a valuable tool for inspection authorities, professional bodies, and traders interested in international trade in garlic.

  • 17 Jul 2017
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 136

The natural gas market is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Industry has overtaken the power sector as the driving force behind the growing use of gas, thanks to rising demand in places like the People’s Republic of China, developing Asia, the Middle East and the United States. At the same time, structural changes in gas supply and trade are changing the global gas market. Heavily oversupplied markets, the ongoing shale-gas revolution in the United States, the second wave of additional liquefaction capacity from Australia and the US, and the fast-growing LNG trade are disrupting traditional gas business and pricing models. This is forcing market players to redefine their strategies and explore new markets.

The IEA’s renamed Gas 2017 market report provides a detailed analysis of supply and trade developments, infrastructure investments, and demand-growth forecast through 2022. It assesses the main changes that will likely transform the gas market, led by rising demand in countries that include China, India, and Pakistan, thanks to ongoing economic growth and relatively low LNG prices. It also explores widening regional differences to traditional gas users, with flat demand forecast in Europe and structural demand decline in Japan.

Oversupplied markets will also keep pressure on prices and discourages new upstream investment in gas production and LNG liquefaction capacity. At the same time, market reforms in places like Egypt, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico have the potential to bring new investments and technologies to unlock vast domestic resources, creating new prospects for the gas industry.

  • 26 Jun 2018
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 153

The gas industry’s future remains bright. Three major shifts will shape the evolution of global natural gas markets in the next five years – growing imports from China, greater industrial demand, and rising production from the United States.

The structural shift will determine the evolution of the market at a time when growth in emerging markets is sustained by strong economic expansion and strong policy support to curb air pollution. Industry becomes a major player in gas markets, while the United States cements its position as a top producer and exporter thanks to its shale revolution.

Gas 2018, the latest IEA annual market report, assesses these trends and provides a detailed analysis of supply and trade developments, infrastructure investments, and demand-growth forecast through 2023.

The report analyses the main changes that will likely transform the natural gas market, including market reforms that shape supply and demand patterns in key Asian economies and developments in the LNG market – the main driver of interregional natural gas trade growth.

  • 07 Jun 2019
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 184

Natural gas demand grew at a remarkable clip last year, increasing by 4.6%, its highest growth rate since the beginning of the decade. Future growth will be more measured, supported by economic expansion in emerging markets – especially in Asia – and sustained policy support in the People’s Republic of China to battle air pollution.

The supplies to meet that new growth will come from both new domestic production in these fast-growing economies but also increasingly from major exporting countries, led by the development of the abundant shale gas resources in the United States. International trade, supported by the strong growth in liquefied natural gas export capacity, will play a growing role in the development of natural gas markets as they move further towards globalisation. The recent convergence in market prices in major regions provides an indication of this increasing integration. However, establishing market-driven pricing mechanisms in fast-growing countries remains a challenge – albeit one that is being addressed by pricing reforms in several leading emerging economies around the world.

  • 16 Jun 2020
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 64

2020 is on its way to experiencing the largest recorded demand shock in the history of global natural gas markets. The Covid-19 pandemic hit an already declining gas demand, faced with historically mild temperatures over the first months of the year. Gas consumption is expected to fall by 4% in 2020, under the successive impacts of lower heating demand from the warm winter, the implementation of lockdown measures in almost all countries and territories to slow the spread of the virus, and a lower level of activity caused by the Covid-19 induced macroeconomic crisis.

Faced with this unprecedented shock, natural gas markets are going through a strong supply and trade adjustments, resulting in historically low spot prices and high volatility. Natural gas demand is expected to progressively recover in 2021, however the Covid-19 crisis will have longer-lasting impacts on natural gas markets, as the main medium-term drivers are subject to high uncertainty.

This report provides a detailed analysis of recent natural gas market developments, assesses the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on the short to medium terms and discusses the main drivers and uncertainties to future gas supply and demand to 2025.

In underground repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases may be generated as a result of several processes. The potential impact of gas generation, accumulation and migration on the performances of the various barriers and, ultimately, on the long-term safety of a repository, should therefore be assessed in the development of safety cases for underground repositories. It was in this context that the EC and the NEA organised a workshop on "Gas Generation, Accumulation and Migration in Underground Repository Systems for Radioactive Waste: Safety-relevant Issues" in Reims, France on 26-28 June 2000. This book includes the texts of the invited presentations, the reports of the deliberations held in the five working groups, as well as the main conclusions of the workshop.

This report systematically examines the key points for natural gas liberalisation and regulatory reform in Europe and the United States over the past decades. It addresses market design, third-party access, capacity allocation, trading centre formation, pipeline tariff setting, and regulatory measures. In addition, the report analyses the transition process itself and identifies the related measures that can help national markets become more openly competitive. Based on these international experiences, the report then looks at the current situation of natural gas liberalisation in the People’s Republic of China, focusing on the importance of designing a suitable framework for the natural gas market by using best-policy tools.

The central goal of this report is to allow policy makers in China to benefit from international experiences to effectively promote the current liberalisation, the success of which will also greatly influence the global industrial development of gas.

This report is the result of a project involving relevant Chinese, European, and United States institutions under the overall oversight of the International Energy Agency.

  • 10 Jan 2021
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 51

Global gas demand fell by an estimated 2.5% or 100 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2020 – its largest drop on record. Amid this slowdown, gas demand for power generation remained resilient owing to fuel switching, while the whole supply chain showed strong flexibility in adjusting to demand variations. Gas trade globalisation progressed with increasing liquidity, while prices experienced historical lows and extreme volatility. The Covid-19 crisis and a well-supplied market put investment on hold, whereas gas market reforms and clean gas policy initiatives gained momentum in major consuming markets.

2021 opens with price rallies in Asia and Europe as rising winter demand tightened supply, but the price spikes are not expected to last beyond the short-term cold snaps given that market fundamentals for 2021 remain fragile. Global gas demand is expected to recover its 2019 level but with uncertainties regarding the recovery trajectory of fast-growing markets compared with more mature regions. Sectoral demand, on the other hand, is subject to a variety of risk factors including fuel switching, slow industrial rebound or milder weather.

This new quarterly report offers a detailed analysis of recent developments in global gas markets and the near-term outlook, and includes an overview of the main market highlights for 2020.

  • 15 Feb 2022
  • International Energy Agency
  • Pages: 61

Global natural gas consumption rebounded by 4.6% in 2021, more than double the decline seen in 2020. The strong demand growth in 2021 was driven by the economic recovery that followed the previous year’s lockdowns and by a succession of extreme weather events. Supply did not keep pace which, combined with unexpected outages, led to tight markets and steep price increases, putting the brakes on demand growth in the second half of 2021.

The year closed with record high spot prices in Europe and Asia, as natural gas supply remained very tight. The direction of short-term demand will depend on the weather during the rest of the northern hemisphere’s heating season. Assuming normal temperatures, growth of the natural gas market is expected to be slowed by higher gas prices and softer economic expansion, while supply tensions may ease as offline capacity gradually returns. The exceptionally high gas (and by extension electricity) prices are likely to have an impact beyond just northern markets and the current season, with some ripple effects in both mature and emerging gas importing markets already visible.

This new issue of the quarterly Gas Market Report includes an overview of the main market highlights for 2021, and an analysis of recent gas market developments with a forecast for 2022.

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