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Oslo Manual 2018

Guidelines for Collecting, Reporting and Using Data on Innovation, 4th Edition

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What is innovation and how should it be measured? Understanding the scale of innovation activities, the characteristics of innovative firms and the internal and systemic factors that can influence innovation is a prerequisite for the pursuit and analysis of policies aimed at fostering innovation. First published in 1992, the Oslo Manual is the international reference guide for collecting and using data on innovation. In this fourth edition, the manual has been updated to take into account a broader range of innovation-related phenomena as well as the experience gained from recent rounds of innovation surveys in OECD countries and partner economies and organisations. 

 

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Measuring business innovation activities

This chapter deals with the measurement of innovation activities, complementing the measurement of innovations as outcomes. It identifies eight major types of activities that firms may undertake in pursuit of innovation, namely research and experimental development; engineering, design and other creative work; marketing and brand equity activities; intellectual property; employee training; software development and databases; acquisition or lease of tangible assets; and innovation management activities. Acknowledging that these activities may be carried out for purposes other than innovation, this chapter provides guidelines for identifying the innovation-related content of resources dedicated to these activities. It also makes proposals for identifying follow-on activities to innovations as well as planned innovation activities and expenditures shortly after the reference year.

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