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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011

image of OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011

This tenth edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard builds on the OECD’s 50 years of indicator development to present major world trends in knowledge and innovation. It analyses a wide set of indicators of science, technology, globalisation and industrial performance in OECD and major non-OECD countries (notably Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa) and includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest.

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The changing landscape of innovation

R&D (research and development) expenditure is an investment aimed at new knowledge, products or processes. Funding may come from government or business. Government-funded R&D aims mainly at producing new fundamental knowledge or satisfying social needs such as health or defence and is not expected to affect productivity as currently measured. Business-funded R&D is typically oriented towards new processes and new products and is expected to increase productivity when successful. It is normally mildly pro-cyclical, i.e. it is affected by the business cycle, as it is subject to financing constraints (the availability of cash limits R&D expenditures, as high risk and little collateral make financial markets reluctant to fund R&D). The most recent data show that trademark activity has been strongly affected by the economic crisis, with a marked drop in finance- and insurance-related trademarks at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from mid-2007. Goods and other services trademark activity turned down with the cycle and then up with the cycle at the beginning of 2009.

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