Lobbying in the 21st Century

Transparency, Integrity and Access

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Lobbying, as a way to influence and inform governments, has been part of democracy for at least two centuries, and remains a legitimate tool for influencing public policies. However, it carries risks of undue influence. Lobbying in the 21st century has also become increasingly complex, including new tools for influencing government, such as social media, and a wide range of actors, such as NGOs, think tanks and foreign governments. This report takes stock of the progress that countries have made in implementing the OECD Principles for Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying. It reflects on new challenges and risks related to the many ways special interest groups attempt to influence public policies, and reviews tools adopted by governments to effectively safeguard impartiality and fairness in the public decision-making process.



This chapter assesses the level of implementation of the requirements on access for all stakeholders in the policy-making process, as provided for in the Principles embedded in the Recommendation. It finds that stakeholder participation in the policy-making process has increased overall, but that more meaningful engagement, greater transparency and better communication are needed to ensure that citizens and businesses feel included in the policy-making process. The chapter also shows that further consideration should be given to stakeholders’ capacity if they are to effectively inform the policy-making process.


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