1887

Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD

The key tables by country statistical profiles include a wide range of indicators on economy, education, energy, environment, foreign aid, health, information and communication, labour, migration, R&D, trade and society. Historical data refer to the latest eight time periods.

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2018 Country statistical profile: Turkey 2018/2

English French

Country statistical profiles: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-2288 - © OECD 2018

Country statistical profile: Turkey 2018
‌‌
Unit
‌2010‌
‌2011‌
‌2012‌
‌2013‌
‌2014‌
‌2015‌
‌2016‌
‌2017‌
Production and income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GDP per capita
USD current PPPs
17 281
 
19 517
 
20 549
 
e 
22 314
 
e 
24 159
 
e 
25 112
 
e 
25 655
 
e 
..
 
Gross national income (GNI) per capita
USD current PPPs
17 130
 
e 
19 343
 
e 
20 387
 
e 
22 106
 
e 
23 939
 
e 
24 815
 
e 
..
 
..
 
Household disposable income
Annual growth %
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Economic growth
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Real GDP growth
Annual growth %
8.5
 
11.1
 
4.8
 
8.5
 
5.2
 
6.1
 
3.2
 
7.4
 
Net saving rate in household disposable income
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Gross fixed capital formation
Annual growth %
22.5
 
23.8
 
2.7
 
13.8
 
5.1
 
9.3
 
2.2
 
..
 
Economic structure: share of real value added
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agriculture, forestry, fishing
%
10.3
 
9.4
 
8.8
 
7.7
 
7.5
 
7.8
 
7.0
 
..
 
Industry including energy
%
21.0
 
22.5
 
21.9
 
22.4
 
22.7
 
22.4
 
22.3
 
..
 
Construction
%
6.9
 
8.2
 
8.5
 
9.2
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.7
 
..
 
Trade, repairs, transport, accomm., food services
%
24.1
 
24.5
 
25.0
 
24.9
 
25.2
 
25.2
 
24.4
 
..
 
Information, communication
%
2.8
 
2.6
 
2.7
 
2.7
 
2.7
 
2.7
 
2.8
 
..
 
Finance and insurance
%
3.3
 
3.1
 
3.3
 
3.5
 
3.3
 
3.4
 
3.8
 
..
 
Real estate
%
11.3
 
10.2
 
9.8
 
9.4
 
9.1
 
8.8
 
8.8
 
..
 
Professional, scientific, support services
%
4.9
 
4.9
 
5.1
 
5.3
 
5.5
 
5.9
 
6.0
 
..
 
Public admin., defence, education, health, social work
%
13.1
 
12.5
 
12.8
 
12.6
 
12.7
 
12.4
 
13.1
 
..
 
Other services (ISIC Rev.4 R - U)
%
2.2
 
2.2
 
2.2
 
2.3
 
2.3
 
2.2
 
2.2
 
..
 
Government deficits and debt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Government deficit
% of GDP
-2.7
 
-0.7
 
-0.2
 
0.2
 
0.2
 
1.3
 
..
 
..
 
General government debt
% of GDP
49.2
 
43.9
 
41.2
 
34.5
 
33.4
 
32.8
 
32.1
 
..
 
General government revenues
% of GDP
35.4
 
34.5
 
34.9
 
34.7
 
33.9
 
34.4
 
..
 
..
 
General government expenditures
% of GDP
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Expenditure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Government/compulsory expenditure on health
% of GDP
3.9
 
3.7
 
3.5
 
3.5
 
3.4
 
3.2
 
3.4
 
e 
..
 
Voluntary expenditure on health
% of GDP
1.1
 
1.0
 
0.9
 
1.0
 
1.0
 
0.9
 
0.9
 
e 
..
 
Public social expenditure
% of GDP
12.8
 
12.5
 
13.0
 
13.4
 
13.5
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Private social expenditure
% of GDP
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Public pension expenditure
% of GDP
7.7
 
7.5
 
8.0
 
8.1
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Private pension expenditure
% of GDP
0.1
 
0.0
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Net official development assistance (Aid)
% of GNI
0.13
 
0.16
 
0.32
 
0.40
 
0.45
 
0.50
 
0.76
 
..
 
Taxes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total tax revenue
% of GDP
24.8
 
25.9
 
24.9
 
25.3
 
24.6
 
25.1
 
25.5
 
..
 
Tax on personal income
% of GDP
3.5
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
3.7
 
3.7
 
..
 
Tax on corporate profits
% of GDP
1.8
 
1.9
 
1.8
 
1.6
 
1.6
 
1.4
 
1.7
 
..
 
Taxes on goods and services
% of GDP
11.8
 
11.7
 
11.2
 
11.7
 
10.8
 
11.1
 
11.1
 
..
 
Taxes on the average worker
% of labour cost
37.0
 
37.0
 
37.1
 
37.4
 
38.1
 
38.2
 
38.1
 
..
 
Trade
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imports of goods and services
% of GDP
25.5
 
30.4
 
28.6
 
28.1
 
27.6
 
26.0
 
24.9
 
..
 
Exports of goods and services
% of GDP
20.4
 
22.3
 
23.7
 
22.3
 
23.8
 
23.3
 
22.0
 
..
 
Goods trade balance: exports minus imports of goods
Bln USD
-56.3
 
-89.2
 
-65.4
 
-79.9
 
-63.6
 
-48.1
 
-40.9
 
..
 
Imports of goods
Bln USD
177.3
 
231.6
 
227.3
 
241.7
 
232.5
 
200.1
 
191.0
 
..
 
Exports of goods
Bln USD
121.0
 
142.4
 
161.9
 
161.8
 
168.9
 
152.0
 
150.2
 
..
 
Service trade balance: exports minus imports of services
Bln USD
16.7
 
20.3
 
22.6
 
23.7
 
26.8
 
24.2
 
15.3
 
..
 
Imports of services
Bln USD
19.4
 
20.6
 
20.6
 
24.5
 
25.1
 
22.7
 
22.4
 
..
 
Exports of services
Bln USD
36.2
 
40.9
 
43.2
 
48.2
 
51.9
 
46.9
 
37.7
 
..
 
Current account balance of payments
% of GDP
-5.6
 
-8.9
 
-5.5
 
-6.7
 
-4.7
 
-3.7
 
-3.8
 
..
 
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Outward FDI stocks
Mln USD
22 506
 
27 652
 
30 936
 
33 318
 
39 513
 
35 602
 
38 454
 
..
 
Inward FDI stocks
Mln USD
187 147
 
136 606
 
190 125
 
151 239
 
182 065
 
155 879
 
140 588
 
..
 
Inflows of foreign direct investment
Mln USD
9 086
 
16 136
 
13 283
 
12 822
 
12 462
 
17 271
 
12 569
 
..
 
Outflows of foreign direct investment
Mln USD
1 469
 
2 330
 
4 106
 
3 528
 
6 667
 
4 809
 
2 859
 
..
 
Prices and interest rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Inflation rate: all items
Annual growth %
8.6
 
6.5
 
8.9
 
7.5
 
8.9
 
7.7
 
7.8
 
11.1
 
Inflation rate: all items non food non energy
Annual growth %
7.2
 
5.9
 
8.1
 
6.8
 
8.6
 
8.1
 
9.3
 
10.8
 
Inflation rate: food
Annual growth %
10.6
 
6.2
 
8.4
 
9.1
 
12.6
 
11.1
 
5.8
 
12.7
 
Inflation rate: energy
Annual growth %
10.5
 
9.9
 
13.9
 
7.5
 
2.5
 
-1.9
 
2.7
 
10.5
 
Producer Price Indices (PPI): manufacturing
Annual growth %
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Long-term interest rates
%
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Purchasing power and exchange rates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Purchasing power parities
TRY per USD
0.92
 
0.97
 
1.02
 
1.07
 
1.10
 
1.20
 
1.30
 
1.38
 
Exchange rates
TRY per USD
1.50
 
1.67
 
1.80
 
1.90
 
2.19
 
2.72
 
3.02
 
3.65
 
Indices of price levels
OECD=100
60
 
55
 
56
 
57
 
52
 
50
 
49
 
43
 
Energy supply and prices
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total primary energy supply (TPES)
Mtoe
106.7
 
113.5
 
118.1
 
116.9
 
121.5
 
128.8
 
134.6
 
..
 
TPES per unit of GDP at 2000 prices and PPPs
Toe per '000 USD
0.08
 
0.08
 
0.08
 
0.07
 
0.07
 
0.07
 
0.07
 
..
 
Renewable energy
Ktoe
11 626.0
 
11 222.4
 
12 154.7
 
13 087.0
 
12 084.6
 
15 673.3
 
17 229.6
 
..
 
Crude oil import prices
USD per barrel
78.26
 
109.81
 
111.70
 
108.37
 
99.71
 
51.42
 
41.28
 
..
 
Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Households with access to computers
%
44.2
 
..
 
50.2
 
49.8
 
..
 
50.6
 
..
 
50.0
 
Households with access to internet
%
41.6
 
..
 
47.2
 
49.1
 
60.2
 
69.5
 
76.3
 
80.7
 
Environment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Water abstactions
Mln m3
46 956
 
e 
..
 
50 510
 
..
 
51 971
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
National fish landings in domestic ports
'000 tonnes
446
 
478
 
396
 
339
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
National fish landings in foreign ports
'000 tonnes
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Aquaculture
'000 tonnes
167
 
189
 
212
 
233
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Municipal waste total
'000 tonnes
29 733
 
30 862
 
30 786
 
30 920
 
31 230
 
31 283
 
33 763
 
e 
..
 
Municipal waste total per capita
Kg
411
 
420
 
413
 
408
 
405
 
400
 
425
 
e 
..
 
CO2emissions from fuel combustion
Mln tonnes
266
 
285
 
303
 
284
 
307
 
317
 
..
 
..
 
Education
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tertiary attainment in population aged 25-64
%
13
 
14
 
15
 
16
 
17
 
18
 
19
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: primary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
..
 
..
 
2 705
 
3 221
 
3 589
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: secondary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
..
 
..
 
2 894
 
3 182
 
3 268
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Expenditure per student: tertiary, 2010 prices
USD constant PPPs
..
 
..
 
8 543
 
9 025
 
8 927
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Youths 15-19 not in education nor employment
%
25.6
 
24.8
 
..
 
22.2
 
21.0
 
18.7
 
18.4
 
..
 
Youths 20-24 not in education nor employment
%
43.7
 
39.6
 
..
 
35.9
 
36.3
 
33.2
 
32.9
 
..
 
Employment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Employment rate in population aged 15-24
%
30.0
 
32.0
 
31.5
 
32.2
 
33.5
 
34.1
 
34.1
 
34.4
 
Employment rate in population aged 25-54
%
55.4
 
57.5
 
58.3
 
59.1
 
58.8
 
59.6
 
60.1
 
61.2
 
Employment rate in population aged 55-64
%
29.6
 
31.3
 
31.9
 
31.5
 
31.4
 
31.8
 
33.4
 
34.4
 
Incidence of part-time employment
%
11.5
 
11.7
 
11.8
 
12.3
 
10.6
 
9.9
 
9.5
 
..
 
Self-employment rate: total employment
%
39.1
 
38.3
 
37.1
 
35.9
 
33.9
 
32.9
 
32.4
 
..
 
Self-employment rate: male employment
%
35.1
 
34.2
 
33.5
 
32.7
 
31.5
 
30.6
 
30.6
 
..
 
Self-employment rate: female employment
%
49.3
 
48.4
 
45.7
 
43.4
 
39.8
 
38.2
 
36.5
 
..
 
Unemployment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unemployment rate: total labour force
%
10.7
 
8.8
 
8.2
 
8.7
 
9.9
 
10.2
 
10.8
 
10.8
 
Unemployment rate: male labour force
%
10.4
 
8.3
 
7.6
 
7.9
 
9.0
 
9.2
 
9.6
 
9.4
 
Unemployment rate: female labour force
%
11.4
 
10.1
 
9.4
 
10.6
 
11.8
 
12.6
 
13.6
 
13.9
 
Long-term unemployment: total unemployed
%
28.6
 
26.5
 
24.9
 
24.4
 
20.6
 
21.2
 
20.6
 
..
 
Labour compensation and hours worked
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Labour compensation per unit labour input, total economy
Annual growth %
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Average time worked per person in employment
Hours per year
1 877
 
1 864
 
1 855
 
1 832
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Research and Development (R&D)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
Mln USD
10 079
 
11 213
 
12 224
 
13 040
 
14 427
 
15 673
 
..
 
..
 
Researchers: full-time equivalent
Per '000 employed
2.9
 
3.1
 
3.4
 
3.6
 
3.5
 
3.6
 
..
 
..
 
Population
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total population
'000 persons
73 142
 
74 224
 
75 176
 
76 055
 
76 903
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Population growth rates
%
1.5
 
1.5
 
1.3
 
1.2
 
1.1
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Total fertitity rates
Children
2.1
 
2.0
 
2.1
 
2.1
 
2.2
 
2.1
 
..
 
..
 
Youth population aged less than 15
% of population
25.8
 
25.4
 
25.1
 
24.7
 
24.3
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Elderly population aged 65 and over
% of population
7.1
 
7.3
 
7.4
 
7.6
 
7.8
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
International migration
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign-born population
% of population
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
0.0
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Foreign population
% of population
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of native-born men
% of labour force
10.5
 
8.4
 
7.8
 
8.1
 
9.2
 
9.3
 
9.7
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of foreign-born men
% of labour force
12.4
 
10.3
 
10.6
 
10.6
 
11.6
 
12.1
 
12.2
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of native-born women
% of labour force
11.6
 
10.2
 
9.5
 
10.8
 
12.0
 
12.8
 
13.9
 
..
 
Unemployment rate in population of foreign-born women
% of labour force
14.1
 
13.6
 
12.6
 
11.9
 
14.8
 
14.4
 
13.2
 
..
 
Health
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life expectancy at birth
Years
74.3
 
74.6
 
74.6
 
78.0
 
78.0
 
78.0
 
..
 
..
 
Life expectancy at birth: men
Years
71.8
 
72.0
 
72.0
 
75.3
 
75.3
 
75.3
 
..
 
..
 
Life expectancy at birth: women
Years
76.8
 
77.1
 
77.2
 
80.7
 
80.7
 
80.7
 
..
 
..
 
Infant mortality
Per '000
12.0
 
11.7
 
11.6
 
10.8
 
11.1
 
10.7
 
..
 
..
 
Overweight or obese, % of population aged 15 and over
Measured
..
 
55.4
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Suicide Rates
Per 100 000 persons
2.4
 
1.7
 
2.1
 
2.6
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Transport
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Goods transport
Mln tonne-km
241 405
 
259 453
 
265 226
 
261 981
 
263 590
 
307 317
 
317 483
 
..
 
Passenger transport
Mln passenger-km
232 404
 
248 147
 
263 472
 
271 955
 
280 466
 
295 562
 
305 177
 
..
 
Road Fatalities
Per mln inhabitants
56
 
52
 
50
 
49
 
46
 
96
 
92
 
..
 
Last updated: 4 April 2018; disclaimer: http://oe.cd/disclaimer
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