copy the linklink copied!Chapter 3. Legal framework of open government for the city of Salé

According to the OECD Recommendation on Open Government, the legal framework is an integral part of open government reforms. Indeed, Recommendation 2 stipulates that adherents should “ensure the existence and implementation of the necessary open government legal and regulatory framework, including through the provision of supporting documents such as guidelines and manuals, while establishing adequate oversight mechanisms to ensure compliance.” In this context, a solid legal and regulatory framework, which enables transparency and recognizes the right to participate in the design and implementation of public policies, can facilitate a culture of governance based on the principles of open government. This legal framework creates a common frame of reference by defining the rights of everyone, as well as the limits. It enables citizens to understand their rights and to know what they can and cannot expect from the public administration.

In Morocco, the 2011 Constitution enshrines the principles of participatory democracy, good governance, access to information (Article 27), the participation of associations (Article 12) and citizens in territorial management (Article 136), participatory mechanisms for dialogue and consultation and the right to present petitions to local authorities (Article 139). These principles create the basis for an enabling legal framework for open government. The right to access to information was recently put into effect with the adoption of a law in February 2018. The adequate implementation of the law will determine its impact on transparency. The legal framework for open government at local level is clearly defined through organic law n° 113.14 related to municipalities1. The law is based on the principles of the 2011 Constitution and also includes some participatory mechanisms that were first set out in the 2009 Municipal Charter2 (GIZ, 2017[10]), namely a commission for equity and equal opportunities (Article 14), as well as the adoption of a participatory approach to drawing up municipal development plans (Article 36).

Indeed, the legal framework of 2015, which regulates local authorities, places the emphasis on transparency, participation, integrity and accountability. The organic law contains several articles that prescribe mechanisms for implementing the principles of open government (see Box ‎3.1).

copy the linklink copied!
Box ‎3.1. Open government articles in organic law n° 113.14 related to municipalities
  • Municipal council sessions are open to the public. Their dates and agendas are displayed at the municipality. At the request of the President, or of one-third of its members, the council may decide, with no debate, to meet in closed session. If a council meeting open to the public may disrupt public order, the governor of the prefecture or province, or his or her representative, may request that the meeting be held in closed session (Article 48).

  • No member of the municipal council may have private interests in the municipality, in inter-municipal cooperation establishments, or in local authority groupings of which the municipality is a member, or in public agencies or institutions, or development corporations that are linked to them (Article 65).

  • The Municipal Action Plan must be drawn up using a participatory process (Article 78).

Chapter 5: participatory mechanisms for dialogue and consultation

  • Article 119: municipal councils set in place participatory mechanisms for dialogue and consultation to promote the involvement of citizens and associations in the formulation and monitoring of action plans.

  • Article 120: the creation of an advisory body in partnership with actors from civil society tasked with assessing the status of implementation of the principles of equity, equal opportunities and integration of the gender approach.

Chapter 6: right to petition

  • Article 121: Citizens and associations can exercise the right to petition for the purpose of demanding that an item be inserted in the municipal council agenda.

The legal framework offers a solid foundation, which subsequently requires implementation of open government principles and practices at local level. However, the effectiveness of the framework would benefit from supplementary documents that specify expectations in individual clauses, such as participatory mechanisms for dialogue and consultation or the participatory development of the municipal action plan. The city of Salé could draw inspiration from the Paris Charter for Citizens’ Participation (see Box ‎3.2), which was developed using a participatory process.

In addition, the sustainability of these new mechanisms depends on the setting up of adequate structures and allocation of the necessary resources, as well as on the commitment of the municipal council, the municipal administration and the various stakeholders in the municipality.

copy the linklink copied!
Box 3.2. Paris Charter for Citizens’ Participation

The city of Paris drew up a charter of citizens’ participation in 2009 so as to create a common framework and strengthen participation. In the light of developments in terms of citizens’ participation since 2009, this Charter has been revised using a participatory process, and a new Charter was adopted in 2018. The Charter contains the following key points.


1. What participating means.

2. Free and inclusive participation.

3. Participation that is available to everyone.

4. Participation that is more user-friendly.


5. Transparency and participatory contract.

6. Renewing and connecting citizens’ bodies.

7. Strengthening Parisians’ role in municipal politics.


8. Promoting Agoras and public experimentation.

9. Ensuring participatory culture in the long term.

10. Bringing the Charter to life.

Source: (Mairie de Paris, 2018[11]) ; (Mairie de Paris, 2010[12])


[9] City of Edmonton (2017), Open City Initiative, (accessed on 28 May 2018).

[10] GIZ (2017), Le Cadre législatif et réglementaire de la gouvernance participative locale.

[8] High Commissioner for Planning (2017), General Population and Housing Census in Morocco 2014, (accessed on 28 May 2018).

[14] International Centre for Municipal Development (1999), Local Government Participatory Practices Manual, (accessed on 28 May 2018).

[18] l’OBS avec Rue89 (2014), “La carte de (presque) tous les accidents de la route en 2012”, (accessed on 28 May 2018).

[11] Mairie de Paris (2018), La Charte parisienne de la participation est adoptée –, (accessed on 30 January 2018).

[12] Mairie de Paris (2010), Charte Parisienne de la Participation, (accessed on 30 January 2018).

[22] Ministère de l’Intérieur, 2017 (n.d.), Élections,

[15] OECD (2019), Open Government in La Marsa, Sayada and Sfax, OECD,

[3] OECD (2017), Recommendation of the Council on Public Integrity, (accessed on 30 January 2018).

[6] OECD (2017), Accompagner les réformes de la gouvernance locale au Maroc : Guide de Bonnes Pratiques.

[7] OECD (2017), Le rôle des élus au sein des collectivités territoriales du Maroc : vers une démocratie locale plus proche des citoyens.

[20] OECD (2017), Recommandation du Conseil sur le Gouvernement Ouvert, (accessed on 19 April 2018).

[1] OECD (2017), Recommendation of the Council on Open Government, (accessed on 19 April 2018).

[2] OECD (2016), Open Government: The Global Context and the Way Forward, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[4] OECD (2015), Open Government in Morocco, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[19] OECD (2013), Regulatory Consultation: A MENA-OECD Practitioners’ guide for engaging stakeholders in the rule-making process, (accessed on 21 March 2018).

[16] OECD (2011), Government at a Glance 2011, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[5] OGP (2017), OGP Local Program | Open Government Partnership, (accessed on 21 March 2018).

[17] Open Knowledge Foundation (2017), Qu’est-ce que l’Open Data?, Open Data Handbook, (accessed on 19 April 2018).

[21] Paris, O. (n.d.), Open Data Portal Paris,

[13] Ville de Dieppe (n.d.), Direction relation aux Citoyens, (accessed on 30 January 2018).


← 1. Dahir (royal decree) n° 1-15-85 of 20 Ramadan 1436 (7 July 2015) promulgating organic law n°113-14 related to municipalities.

← 2. Dahir (royal decree) n° 1-02-297 of 25 Rejeb 1423 (3 October 2002) promulgating law n° 78-00 pertaining to the Municipal Charter as modified and completed by Dahir n° 1-03-82 of 20 Moharrem 1424 (24 March 2003) promulgating organic law n° 01-03 and by Dahir n° 1-08-153 of 22 Safar 1430 (18 February 2009) promulgating law n° 17-08

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2019

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at

Chapter 3. Legal framework of open government for the city of Salé