copy the linklink copied!Annex A. Country profiles of early childhood education and care systems

Country profiles provide a summary of relevant system-level data on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in participating countries in order to contextualise Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) 2018 findings. The profiles draw on data from various sources, including results from a policy questionnaire implemented in the context of the OECD Quality beyond Regulation policy review in 2019 (OECD, 2019[1]), which collects information on ECEC policies from the authorities in charge of those policies. Other sources include Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators (OECD, 2019[2]), the Starting Strong series (OECD, 2017[3]; 2017[4]) and additional information provided by national authorities. Country profiles examine the following five dimensions:

  • access to early childhood education and care

  • governance and settings

  • expenditure and funding

  • curriculum and quality standards

  • workforce development.

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

copy the linklink copied!Chile

Access to early childhood education and care

In Chile, a legal entitlement grants unconditional access to a place in ECEC to all children aged 3 to 5. In practice, children have access to at least 22 hours of free ECEC per week. In 2017, 79% of children aged 3 to 5 were enrolled in ECEC (below the OECD average of 87%). In addition, 22% of children under age 3 participate in ECEC in Chile, which is 14 percentage points lower than the average enrolment rate across OECD countries (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Chile is integrated, as it is the Ministry of Education who is responsible for ECEC programmes for children aged 0-6 (Figure A A.1). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

For children under age 4, five types of settings are in place: public kindergartens of local service public education; municipal departments and municipal corporations (publicly funded and managed by local governments); Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI) kindergartens (publicly managed and funded) and JUNJI VTF; Integra kindergartens (privately managed but receive public funding) and Integra CAD. For children aged 4-6, the five types of existing settings are: public preschools and schools (publicly funded and managed by local governments); co-financed preschools and schools (privately managed and at least partly funded by public sources) and private preschools and schools (privately managed and funded). There is also a setting that serves children aged 0-6: private kindergartens, which are privately managed and funded (Figure A A.1).

The national/federal authority is responsible for setting minimum standards and for regulating class composition for all children at both publicly and privately managed settings (Table A A.1).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.1. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Chile
Figure A A.1. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Chile

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Chile, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 1.2% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.1), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Investment in early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) amounted to 0.3% of GDP and pre-primary education (ISCED 02) amounted to 0.9%. Both levels are funded mostly by public sources. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Chile, 18% comes from private sources (OECD, 2019[2]).

Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education in Chile was lower than the OECD average (USD 6 599 compared to USD 8 349). In addition, annual expenditure per child on early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) in the same year was lower than in all other OECD countries with available data (USD 8 018 compared to an OECD average of USD 12 080) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

There are five curriculum frameworks in place in Chile. The main framework is the Curricular Bases of Early Childhood Education, which covers the 0-6 age range with specific learning goals for different age groups: children under age 2, children aged 2-3 and children aged 4-6. The Framework for Good Teaching at Early Childhood Education specifies ECEC practices for these three age groups in Chile. The Decree 53 and Decree 315 frameworks specify the minimum educational elements and teaching materials, as well as the necessary infrastructure to obtain and maintain the official state recognition in these three levels. Finally, the Decree 373 framework establishes the definitions for the transition between pre-primary and primary school levels (Figure A A.1). These curriculum frameworks are mandatory for all settings.

Chile has established regulations on child-staff ratios and group sizes for each age group. For children under age 2, ECEC centres are required to have one assistant per seven children, one teacher per 42 children and one food operator per 40 children. For this age group, the maximum group size is 21 children. For children aged 2, the requirements are one assistant per 25 children and one teacher per 32 children. For children aged 3, one assistant and one teacher are required per 32 children. The maximum group size for children aged 2 and 3 is 32 children. For children aged 4 and 5, ECEC centres need to have one assistant and one teacher per 35 children. The maximum group size is 35 children for children aged 4 and 45 children for children aged 5 (if the sizes are respectively equal to or below 10 and 15 children, only one teacher is required for the group) (Table A A.1).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment required for teachers in ECEC (as well as in primary school) is a bachelor’s degree (ISCED level 6) (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in Chile after 10 years of experience was USD 29 318 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), lower than the OECD average, and the same as the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point of their careers. In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year in pre-primary was 1 962 hours (the same as in primary school), and the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 063 hours (the same as in primary school). This means that pre-primary and primary teachers in have equal non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) as primary teachers. On average in OECD countries, total statutory working time per school year in pre-primary was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.1. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Chile

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

22% (age 0-2)

79 % (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2019)

Unconditional access for all children aged 3-5

Expenditure and funding

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

0.3%

0.9%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 8 017

USD 6 599

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

18%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

For children 0-3: National/federal authority for both publicly managed and privately managed settings

For children 4-6: National authority for publicly managed settings; National/federal and regional authorities for privately managed settings

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

For children 0-3: National authority for both publicly managed and privately managed settings

For children 4-6: National authority for both publicly managed and privately managed settings

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

For children under age 2: one assistant per 7 children; one teacher per 42 children and one food operator per 40 children. Maximum group size is 21

For children aged 2: one assistant per 25 children and one teacher per 32 children. Maximum group size is 32

For children aged 3: one assistant and one teacher per 32 children. Maximum group size is 32

For children aged 4: one assistant and one teacher per 35 children. If the group size is 10 or less, only one teacher is required. Maximum group size is 35

For children aged 5-6: one assistant and one teacher per 35 children. If the group size is 15 or less, only one teacher is required. Maximum group size is 45

Group/classroom composition (2019)

No policy or regulation

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for ECEC teachers (2017)

ISCED 6 (bachelor's degree)

Participation in professional development (2019)

Not minimum participation required

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 29 318

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience (2018)

Data not available 

ECEC teachers earn the same as primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available 

1 962 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available 

1 063 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Denmark

Access to early childhood education and care

In Denmark, a legal entitlement to a place in ECEC grants universal access to ECEC to all children aged 26 weeks until school entry age. Parents with an income below a certain limit can receive a subsidy from the municipality in addition to the regular subsidy for a place in ECEC. In 2017, almost all children aged 3 to 5 were enrolled in ECEC, as well as an important percentage of 3-year-olds (96%). In addition, 55% of the children under the age of 3 participate in ECEC in Denmark, which is 19 percentage points higher than the average enrolment rate for the same age group across OECD countries (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Denmark is integrated, as it is the Ministry for Children and Education (until July 2019, Ministry for Children and Social Affairs) who is responsible for administering ECEC programmes for children aged 0-5 year-olds (Figure A A.2). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

Different types of settings are in place in Denmark. Children under the age of 3 who participate in ECEC may be enrolled in nursery or in home-based day care (Figure A A.2). Children aged between 3 and 5 years-old attend kindergarten. Alternatively, children may enrol in integrated day care centres that serve the whole age range from 0 to 5 years. The national authority is responsible for legislation regarding all ECEC settings but municipalities also participate in the regulation of ECEC centres, for instance, through the definition of minimum standards (e.g. space requirements and staff qualifications).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.2. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Denmark
Figure A A.2. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Denmark

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

2. Until July 2019 Ministry for Children and Social Affairs.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Denmark, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 1.3% of GDP in 2014 (Table A A.2), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries for the same year of reference. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Denmark in 2014, 19% came from private sources, which is around the OECD average of 18% for the same year. Annual expenditure on ECEC per child (ISCED 0) in 2014 in Denmark was higher than the OECD average (USD 16 298 compared to USD 8 858) (OECD, 2017[5]).

Curriculum and quality standards

A single curriculum framework covers ECEC provision for children aged 0 to 5 in nurseries, kindergartens, home-based day care and integrated day care (Figure A A.2). This integrated curriculum framework is compulsory for both ISCED 01 and ISCED 02 levels.

Denmark has established regulations regarding group composition and child-staff ratios only for home-based day care. These regulations limit the number of children per staff in home-based day care to five, a ratio that municipalities can raise up to ten children per staff in case the home-based day care setting is handled by more than one staff member. Denmark also has regulations on minimum standards of space per child.

Workforce development and working conditions

There is no minimum educational attainment required for ECEC teachers in Denmark but a large part of the staff has a bachelor’s degree or equivalent. In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in centre-based ECEC settings in Denmark after ten years of experience was USD 49 675 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), higher than the OECD average, but lower than the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point in their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year for pre-primary teachers was 1 680 hours, slightly over the OECD average and the same than teachers in primary schools and higher levels of education (OECD, 2019[2]). Data from 2015 indicates that the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 417 hours, compared to 748 hours for primary teachers (OECD, 2017[5]). This means that teachers in ECEC in Denmark have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.2. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Denmark

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

55% (age 0-2)

98% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2014)

Legal entitlement to a place in ECEC to all children aged 26 weeks until school entry age. Parents with an income below a certain limit can receive a subsidy from the municipality in addition to the regular subsidy for a place in ECEC.

Expenditure and funding

ISCED 0

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2014)

1.3%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2014)

USD 16 298

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2014)

19%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

Local and national authorities (for both public and private centres)

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

Data not available

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

For home-based day care only:

  • one staff for every five children

  • two staff for every ten children

No regulations on group size and staff-child ratios for other settings.

Group/classroom composition (2019)

No policy or regulation.

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment for ECEC teachers (2017)

ISCED 6

Participation in professional development (2019)

Data not available

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 49 675

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after 10 years of experience (2018) 

Data not available

Pre-primary teachers earn 8% less than primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2018) 

Data not available

1 680 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2015) 

Data not available

1 417 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2017[5]), Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en; OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Germany

Access to early childhood education and care

In Germany, a legal entitlement grants universal access to a place in an ECEC centre for children from the age of 1, though, the conditions for access and fees depend on the state (Land), the municipality and/or the providers. In 2017, 95% of children aged 3 to 5 were enrolled in ECEC, which is higher than the OECD average of 87%. In addition, a 37% of children under age 3 participate in ECEC in Germany, which is around the average enrolment rate across OECD countries for this age group (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Germany is integrated at the federal level. The Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth is responsible for administering ECEC programmes for children aged 0 to school entry age (typically at age 6) (Figure A A.3). However, core competences are devolved to the states, which regulate ECEC within the framework set out by national legislation (e.g. the Social Code Book and the Child and Youth Act). In most states, the education department is in charge of ECEC, but in some states it is the social affairs department (OECD, 2019[2]).

For Germany, the policy questionnaire implemented in the context of the OECD Quality beyond Regulations policy review collects information on ECEC policies at the national as well as the state level. To ensure the feasibility of the policy data collection in the federal context, 4 out of 16 states were selected by Germany for the policy questionnaire, covering states in the former East and West of the country, as well as states of different types (territorial and city states) and with different numbers of inhabitants: Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg and North-Rhine-Westphalia.

Four types of settings are in place: ECEC centres for all age groups (0-6), ECEC centres for children under age 3, ECEC centres for children aged 3-6, and family day care (for all age groups). Some states additionally comprise a fifth type of setting: pre-primary classes, covering a very small proportion of children around the school-entry age. All these types of settings can be managed publicly or privately (Figure A A.3).

In the four states for which data has been collected as part of the policy questionnaire, the national authority (which provides the overarching legislative framework: the Social Code Book and the Child and Youth Act) and the regional authority (which specify standards through their respective implementation laws for ECEC) are responsible for setting minimum standards (e.g. space requirements, staff qualifications, ratios) for both publicly and privately managed settings. The ECEC providers are in charge of the regulations regarding group/classroom composition for both publicly and privately managed settings in all states, whereas the regional authority is also responsible for this in the states of Bavaria and North-Rhine-Westphalia. (Table A A.3).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.3. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Germany
Figure A A.3. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Germany

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Germany, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 0.9% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.3), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Investment in early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) and pre-primary education (ISCED 02) amounted to 0.3% and 0.6% of GDP, respectively. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Germany, 19% comes from private sources (OECD, 2019[2]),

Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education in Germany was higher than the OECD average (USD 10 101 compared to USD 8 349). In addition, annual expenditure per child in 2016 on early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) in the same year was higher than in all other OECD countries with available data (USD 16 169 compared to an OECD average of USD 12 080) (OECD, 2019[2]),

Curriculum and quality standards

Each state defines their curriculum framework based on the federal Common Framework. For example, in Berlin, the “Bridging Diversity - an Early Years Programme” (Berliner Bildungsprogramm für Kitas und Kindertagespflege) covers ages 0-6 and in Brandenburg the “Principles of Elementary Education” (Grundsätze elementarer Bildung in Einrichtungen der Kindertagesbetreuung im Land Brandenburg) cover children from 1-6 years old. The curriculum framework “Principles of education for children aged 0-10 in child day-care facilities and primary schools in North Rhine-Westphalia” (Bildungsgrundsätze für Kinder von 0 bis 10 Jahren in Kindertagesbetreuung und Schulen im Primarbereich in Nordrhein-Westfalen) addresses a wider age range from 0-10. In Bavaria, there are three binding curriculum frameworks in place. The main curriculum is the Bavarian Framework for Early Education (Der Bayerische Bildungs- und Erziehungsplan für Kinder) for children aged 0-10. For the same age group, this state also provides the Bavarian Guidelines for Education (Bayerische Leitlinien für die Bildung und Erziehung von Kindern bis zum Ende der Grundschulzeit – BayBL). Bavaria also specifically adapted the Bavarian Framework for children aged 0-3 and provided specific guidelines to work with this age group in the curriculum framework. In Germany the regulations on child-staff ratios both at ISCED 01 and 02 levels vary across states. There are regulations on group sizes in place in the states of Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia. There are no regulations on group composition, except for the state of Brandenburg, where legislation indicates that a group should offer children the possibility of experiences with other age groups (although there are no quotas) (Table A A.3).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment typically required for teachers in ECEC is a vocationally-oriented bachelor’s degree or equivalent (ISCED level 6) (see Box 3.1) (OECD, 2019[2]). In the ECEC sector professional development for teachers depends on the state and what is defined in the employment contracts, e.g. in Mecklenburg-Pomerania staff are required by law to attend five days of continued professional development annually and in Thuringia it is two days per year (Table A A.3).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year in pre-primary and primary education was 1 769 hours, and the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 755 hours for pre-primary teachers, compared to 800 hours for primary teachers. This means that teachers in ECEC have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.3. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Germany

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

37% (age 0-2)

95% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to ECEC (2019)

Universal access to a place in an ECEC centres for children aged 1-5.

Conditions for access and fees depend on the state, the municipality and/or the providers.

Expenditure and funding

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

0.3%

0.6%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD,

converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 16 169

USD 10 101

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

22%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards1 (2019)

Regional authorities, within the framework established by national legislation (for both publicly and privately managed settings in all participating states).

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition1 (2019)

ECEC provider (for both publically managed and privately managed settings) for all participating states. In addition, in North-Rhine-Westphalia and in Bavaria the regional authority is also responsible

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios12 (2019)

Berlin:

Child-staff ratio:

•   for children under the age of 3, one staff member for 4.8 children

•   for children age 3-5, one staff member for 8.7 children

No regulation on group sizes.

Brandenburg:

Child-staff ratio:

•   for children under the age of 3, one staff member for 7.6 children

•   for children age 3-5, one staff member for 11.5 children

•   for children age 6 and older, 1 staff member for 12.5 children

No regulation on group sizes.

North Rhine-Westphalia:

Child-staff ratio:

•   for children under the age of 3, one staff member for 3.5 children

•   for children age 3-5, one staff member for 9.4 children

Regulations on group size are in place.

Bavaria:

Child-staff ratio:

•   for children under the age of 3, at least one staff member for 5.8 children

•   for children age 3-5, at least one staff member for 11.5 children

•   for children age 6 and older, at least 1 staff member for 9.6 children

Regulations on group size are in place.

Group/classroom composition1 (2019)

Brandenburg: There are no quotas but a group should offer children the possibility of experiences with other age groups

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for ECEC teachers (2019)

Typically ISCED 6, vocational

Yearly participation in professional development1 (2019)

It depends on the state and what is defined in the contracts

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs

Data not available

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience

Data not available

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

1 769 hours 

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

1 755 hours

1. Data includes information for 4 out of 16 states in Germany: Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg and North-Rhine-Westphalia. For an overview over all states see Viernickel and Fuchs-Rechlin (2015[6]).

2. Staff ratios were provided by Germany according to a standardised calculation by Viernickel and Fuchs-Rechlin (2015[6]), on the basis of the regulations of the 16 states.

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Iceland

Access to early childhood education and care

In 2017, 60% of children under age 3 were enrolled in an ECEC programme in Iceland, which is well above the average enrolment rate for this age group across OECD countries (36%). In addition, 95% of children aged 2 participate in ECEC. A 97% of children aged 3-5 were enrolled in an ECEC programme, which is also above the OECD average by 10 percentage points (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Iceland is split. The Ministry of Education and Research is responsible for ECEC centre-based settings for children aged 1-5, while the Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for administering home-based provisions for children under the age of 3 (Figure A A.4). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

Preschools in Iceland can be managed publicly or privately. These settings target all children aged 1-5 providing integrated early childhood education and care. In publicly managed preschools, the national and local authorities are responsible for setting minimum standards (e.g. staff qualifications). In privately managed preschools, the national authority and the ECEC providers set the minimum standards. Regulations on classroom composition are the responsibility of the local authorities in publicly managed settings, and of the ECEC provider in privately managed settings (Table A A.4).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.4. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Iceland
Figure A A.4. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Iceland

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Iceland, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 1.7% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.4), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Investment in early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) was somewhat lower than for pre-primary education (ISCED 02), amounting to 0.7% of GDP and 1.0% of GDP, respectively. Both levels are funded mostly by public sources. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Iceland, 13% comes from private sources (OECD, 2019[2]).

Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education in Iceland was higher than the OECD average (USD 13 230 compared to USD 8 349). In addition, annual expenditure per child on early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) in the same year was higher than the OECD average (USD 18 934 compared to an OECD average of USD 12 080) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

A single curriculum framework covers ECEC provision (both ISCED 01 and ISCED 02) for children in preschools in Iceland (Figure A A.4). This integrated curriculum framework is compulsory. Iceland does not have formal regulations regarding child-staff ratios, group sizes or group composition (Table A A.4).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment required for teachers in ECEC (as well as in primary school) is a Master’s degree (ISCED level 7) (OECD, 2019[2]). Professional development for teachers is not mandatory, but participation each year is common practice (Table A A.4).

In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in Iceland after ten years of experience was USD 39 324 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), slightly above the OECD average, but slightly lower than the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point of their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 760 hours, the same as for ISCED 1. However, the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 620 hours in ISCED 02 as compared to 624 hours in ISCED 1. This means that teachers in ECEC have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.4. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Iceland

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

60% (age 0-2)

97% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2014)

None

Expenditure and funding

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

0.7 %

1.0%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 18 934

USD 13 230

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

13%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

National and local authorities for publicly managed settings

National authority and ECEC providers for privately managed settings

Responsibility for regulating classroom composition (2019)

Local authority for publicly managed settings

ECEC providers for privately managed settings

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

No regulations

Group/classroom composition (2019)

No regulations

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for ECEC teachers (2019)

ISCED 7 (Master’s degree)

Yearly participation in professional development (2019)

Not mandatory, but participation each year is common practice

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 39 324

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after 10 years of experience (2018) 

Data not available

Primary teachers earn 1% more than pre-primary teachers 

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 800 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 620 hours

Notes: Data for Iceland does not include home-based care settings.

Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Israel

Access to early childhood education and care

In Israel, all children aged 3-5 are legally entitled to a place in ECEC (kindergarten) for a minimum of 35 hours per week. Attendance is required by law and free of charge. For children aged 3 months to 3 years access to ECEC (day care) is a legal entitlement, too. If there are more children than there are places available for this age group, an admission committee will assess children’s needs against priority criteria. ECEC for children in this age group is free for up to 50 hours per week. In 2017, almost all children aged 3-5 years were enrolled in ECEC (99%), more than the average in OECD countries (87%). OECD data suggests that 56% of children under age 3 participate in ECEC in Israel, which is 20 percentage points higher than the average enrolment rate across OECD countries (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Israel is split. The Ministry of Education is responsible for administering kindergarten programmes for children aged 3-5, while the Ministry of Labour, Welfare and Social Affairs is responsible for ECEC settings, including childcare and family day-care, for children predominantly aged 3 months to 3 years old (Figure A A.5). Kindergartens accept all children regardless of their family background, with the exception of privately managed ultra-orthodox kindergartens, which are usually separated by gender and are located in areas where the ultra-orthodox communities are concentrated. The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 and compulsory education starts at age 3 (OECD, 2019[2]).

The national authorities are responsible for setting minimum standards for publicly and semi-privately managed settings. The Ministry of Labour, Welfare and Social Affairs is responsible for regulating classroom composition in publicly and privately managed day-care centres. For public kindergartens, both the national and local authorities are responsible for regulating classroom composition. For day-care centres, the operational body in charge of each setting decides on the composition of the classes or groups of children.

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.5. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Israel
Figure A A.5. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Israel

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned. Data from ultra-orthodox kindergartens (ISCED 02 level) are not analysed for this report.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Israel, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 1.2% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.5), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Investment in early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) is at 0.3% of GDP, below the investment in pre-primary education (ISCED 02) amounting to 0.9% of GDP. Whereas, in pre-primary education only a small share of expenditure is covered by private sources (9%). In early childhood educational development most of the funding comes from private sources (84% private expenditure) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education (USD 5 466) and early childhood educational development (USD 2 971) in Israel was lower than the OECD average (USD 8 349 and USD 12 080 respectively (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

A single, compulsory curriculum framework covers ECEC provision for children aged 0 to 2 in childcare and family day-care centres. For pre-primary education, five complementary, subject-specific curricula are in place, covering language and literacy basics; mathematics; physical training; science and technology; life skills (Figure A A.5).

Israel has established regulations on child-staff ratios both at ISCED 01 and at 02 levels. In childcare centres, at least 1 staff per 6 children is required for infants under the age of 15 months, for children under the age of 2 it is 1 staff per 9 children and for children between 2 and 3 years old it is 1 to 11. In family day-care centres the required ratio is 1 staff per 5 children. In both publicly and privately managed kindergartens, for children aged 3-5, the group size is limited to 35 children and one teacher and one assistant are required. For children aged 3, two assistants are required if the group has more than 30 children (Table A A.5).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment required for teachers in ECEC (as well as in primary school) is a bachelor’s degree or equivalent (ISCED level 6). Participation in professional development activities each year is common practice for teachers in childcare centres and in public kindergartens (Table A A.5).

In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in Israel after 10 years of experience was USD 31 149 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), higher than the OECD average and 10% higher than the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point of their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

The total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 066 hours in 2018 (which compares to 1 235 hours in ISCED 1), and the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 029 hours. In ISCED 1, statutory net teaching time per school year was 843 hours. This means that teachers in ECEC have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.5. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Israel

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

56% (age 0-2)

99% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC

Access to free ECEC for up to 50 hours per week. If there are more children than there are places available, an admission committee will assess children’s needs against priority criteria.

Access to free ECEC for at least 35 hours per week

Expenditure and funding

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

0.3%

0.9%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 2 971

USD 5 466

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

84%

9%

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

National authority

National authority

Responsibility for regulating classroom composition (2019)

National authority

National/local authorities

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

Day-care centres 1 staff per 6 children under the age of 15 months; 1 staff per 9 children under the age of 2; 1 staff per 9 children between 2 and 3 years; Family day-care centres 1 staff per 5 children

Formal (publicly managed) and unofficial (privately managed) kindergartens Group size is limited to 35 children. 1 teacher and 1 assistant for groups of up to 30 1 teacher and 2 assistants for 30-35 children

Classroom composition

No regulations

No regulations

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for teachers (2017)

ISCED 5 (vocational training)

ISCED 5 (vocational training)

Yearly participation in professional development (2019)

Common practice for teachers in day-care centres

Common practice for teachers in public kindergartens

Working conditions

Statutory salary after 10 years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 31 149

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after 10 years of experience (2018)

Data not available

Primary teachers earn 10% less than pre-primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 066 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 029 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]) , Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Japan

Access to early childhood education and care

In 2017, 30% of children under age 3 were enrolled in an ECEC programme, which is 6 percentage points lower than the average enrolment rate for this age group across OECD countries. In contrast, 91% of children aged 3-5 were enrolled in an ECEC programme, which is above the OECD average of 87% (OECD, 2019[2]). From 1 October 2019, free early childhood education and care is a universal legal entitlement for children age 3-5 years in Japan. Families can access kindergarten, day-care centres and centres for early childhood education and care at no cost. For children aged 0-2 coming from households exempt from municipal resident tax, access to ECEC is free of charge. For children who are recognised as ‘’needing childcare’’, free extended access to ECEC is granted for all age groups up to an established monetary limit.

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Japan is split. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is responsible for kindergarten settings for children aged 3-5, while the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is responsible for day-care centres for children aged 0-5 and the Cabinet Office administers integrated early childhood education and care settings for children aged 0-5 (Figure A A.6). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

The national authority is responsible for setting minimum standards for kindergarten, and each centre decides on classroom composition. For day-care centres, the national and regional authorities are responsible for setting minimum standards, and individual centres are responsible for regulating classroom composition. Integrated centres for ECEC have minimum standards that are set by the national/federal and regional authorities; and individual centres decide what the classroom composition will be.

Expenditure and funding

In Japan, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 0.2% of GDP in 2016, lower than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries (Table A A.6). Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Japan, 51% comes from private sources. Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education in Japan was USD 7 473, lower than the OECD average of USD 8 349 (OECD, 2019[2]). (OECD, 2019[1])

Curriculum and quality standards

In line with its split governance system, there are three sets of curriculum frameworks in Japan. The National Curriculum Standards for Kindergartens is the curriculum used for children aged 3-5 attending kindergarten. The National Curriculum Standards for Day-Care Centres covers children aged 0-5 in day-care centres. The National Curriculum Standards for Integrated Centres for Early Childhood Education and Care covers children aged 0-5 in integrated early childhood and care centres (Figure A A.6).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.6. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Japan
Figure A A.6. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Japan

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Japan has established regulations on child-staff ratios in day-care centres and in integrated centres for early childhood education and care. In both settings, for children under age 1, at least one staff member per three children is required. For children aged 1-2, one teacher per six children is required. For children aged 3-4 one teacher is required for every 20 children. For children between the ages of 4 and 5, one teacher is required for every 30 children. Integrated centres for early childhood education and care are permitted to have a maximum of 35 children per teacher. There are also regulations in place concerning kindergartens, which are permitted to have no more than 35 children per teacher (Table A A.6).

Workforce development and working conditions

In order to enter the teaching profession in ECEC in Japan, an ISCED 5 level certification (short cycle tertiary education) or an ISCED 6 level diploma (bachelor’s degree or equivalent) are required in all types of settings (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 891 hours, the same as in ISCED level 1. On average in OECD countries, the total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.6. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Japan

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

30% (age 0-2)

91 % (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2019)

From October 2019:

Age 0-2: free for the households with low income

Age 3-5: free-of-charge for all children in principle

Expenditure and funding

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

Data not available

0.2%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

Data not available

USD 7 473

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

51%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

National/federal authority (for both publicly managed and privately managed settings)

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

ECEC providers (for both publicly and privately managed settings)

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

Day-care centre

Group size: data not available

Child-staff ratios:

Age 0: 1 day-care centre teacher per 3 children

Age 1-2: 1 day-care centre teacher per 6 children

Age 3-4: 1 day-care centre teacher per 20 children

Age 4-5: 1 day-care centre teacher per 30 children

Integrated centre for early childhood education and care

Group size: maximum 35 children for ages 3-5

Child-staff ratios:

Age 0: 1 ECEC teacher per 3 children

Age 1-2: 1 ECEC teacher per 6 children

Age 3: 1 ECEC teacher per 20 children

Age 4-5: 1 ECEC teacher per 30 children

(For children over age 3: 1 ECEC teacher per class)

Kindergarten

Group size: no more than 35 children

Child-staff ratios: 1 teacher per class

Group/classroom composition (2019)

No regulations

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for ECEC teachers (2017)

ISCED 5 or 6

Participation in professional development (2019)

Data not available

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

Data not available

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience (2018)

Data not available

Data not available

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 891 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available

Data not available

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Korea

Access to early childhood education and care

In Korea, a legal entitlement to a place in kindergarten (ISCED level 02) grants unconditional access to 20-25 hours of free ECEC per week to all children aged 3-5. Furthermore, a legal entitlement to a place in childcare centres grants unconditional access to 30-60 hours of free ECEC per week to all children aged 0-5 (OECD, 2017[3]). In 2017, almost all children aged 3-5 years-old in Korea were enrolled in ECEC (95%), above the OECD average. The percentage of children aged 3 enrolled in ECEC was 94%. In addition, a 56% of children under the age of 3 attend ECEC in Korea (as compared to an OECD average of 36%), as well as an important share of 2-year-olds (88% compared to an OECD average of 62%) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Korea is split. The Ministry of Education is responsible for kindergarten settings for children aged 3-5, while the Ministry of Health and Welfare is responsible for childcare settings for children aged 0-5 (Figure A A.7). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

The national/federal and local authorities are responsible for setting minimum standards for kindergarten settings. For childcare settings, minimum standards are set by the national/federal authority. There are no regulations on classroom composition in Korea.

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.7. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Korea
Figure A A.7. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Korea

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Korea, total expenditure on pre-primary education (ISCED 02) was equal to 0.5% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.7), slightly lower than the average of 0.6% of GDP in OECD countries. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Korea, 18% came from private sources, the same as the average in OECD countries. Annual expenditure on ECEC per child (ISCED 02) in 2016 in Korea was USD 7 358, converted using PPPs (lower than the OECD average of USD 8 349) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

There are two sets of curriculum frameworks in Korea: the Standard Childcare Curriculum covers children aged 0-2 and the Nuri Curriculum covers children aged 3-5. Korea has established regulations on child-staff ratios in childcare centres. For children under age 1, at least one staff member per three children is required. For children aged 1, one teacher per five children is required. For children aged 2, one teacher is required for every 7 children. For children aged 3, one teacher is required for every 15 children. For children between the ages of 4 and 5, one teacher is required for every 20 children. There are also regulations in place concerning child-staff ratios and group size in kindergartens, but these vary across different regions (with generally a maximum of 20 children per group) (Table A A.7).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment required for teachers in ECEC in Korea is an ISCED 5 level certification (short cycle tertiary education) (OECD, 2019[2]). Participation in professional development each year is common practice for ECEC teachers in Korea.

In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in public kindergarten settings in Korea after 10 years of experience was USD 48 958 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), higher than the OECD average of USD 39 264, and the same as the annual statutory salary of public primary school teachers at the same point in their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year for pre-primary teachers in Korea was 1 520 hours, slightly lower than the OECD average and the same than teachers in primary schools. However, the statutory net teaching time of preschool teachers in Korea (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 789 hours, compared to 675 hours for primary teachers. This means that teachers in ECEC in Korea have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.7. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Korea

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

56% (age 0-2)

95% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2014)

For children 3 to 5; unconditional access to 20-25 hours per week in kindergartens

For children 0 to 5: unconditional access to 30-60 hours per week in infant care and day care settings

Expenditure and funding

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

Data not available

0.5%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

Data not available

USD 7 358

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

Data not available

18%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

National/federal and local authorities (for public and private kindergarten settings)

National/federal authority (for public and private childcare settings)

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

Not applicable

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

Kindergarten

Group size: varies across different regions (generally between 20-25 children)

Child-staff ratios: varies across different regions (generally 1 teacher per 20 children)

Childcare

Group size and child-staff ratios:

Age 0: 1 teacher per 3 children (no more than 6 children per group)

Age 1: 1 teacher per 5 children (no more than 10 children per group)

Age 2: 1 teacher per 7 children (no more than 14 children per group)

Age 3: 1 teacher per group of 15 children

Age 4-5: 1 teacher per group of 20 children

Group/classroom composition

No regulation

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for teachers (2017)

Short-cycle tertiary education (ISCED level 5)

Yearly participation in professional development (2019)

Common practice

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 48 958

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience (2018) 

Data not available

Pre-primary teachers earn the same as primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 520 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available

789 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2017[5]), Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en; OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

copy the linklink copied!Norway

Access to early childhood education and care

In Norway, a legal entitlement to a place in ECEC grants universal access to 41 hours of ECEC per week to all children aged 1-5 (Box 5.3). Children aged 2-5 from low-income families are eligible for up to 20 hours free of charge per week. In 2017, almost all children aged 3-5 were enrolled in ECEC, as well as an important percentage of children aged 3 (96%). In addition, 56% of the children under age 3 participate in ECEC in Norway, which is 20 percentage points higher than the average enrolment rate for this age group across OECD countries (OECD, 2019[2]).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Norway is integrated, as it is the Ministry of Education and Research who is responsible for administering ECEC programmes for children aged 0-5 (Figure A A.8). The starting age for compulsory primary school is 6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

Two types of settings are in place: kindergartens and family kindergartens, which can be managed publicly or privately. More than 98 % of children enrolled in ECEC attend kindergartens and less than 2 % are in family kindergartens. These settings target all children, providing early childhood education and care defined as early childhood educational development programmes (ISCED 01) for children under the age of 3 and pre-primary education programmes (ISCED 02) for children aged 3 to 5 years old. The national authority is responsible for legislation and regulation setting minimum standards for both publicly and privately managed settings.

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.8. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Norway
Figure A A.8. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Norway

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Norway, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 2% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.8), higher than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Investment in early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) and pre-primary education (ISCED 02) amounted to 1% of GDP each. ECEC services in Norway are funded mostly by public sources. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Norway 14% comes from private sources, including fees paid by parents (which are set at a maximum of 6% of a household’s income) (OECD, 2019[1]; 2019[2]).

Annual expenditure in 2016 on ECEC per child in pre-primary education in Norway was USD 14 344 (higher than the OECD average of USD 8 349). In addition, annual expenditure per child on early childhood educational development (ISCED 01) in the same year was higher than in all other OECD countries with available data (USD 25 365 compared to an OECD average of USD 12 080) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

A single curriculum framework covers ECEC provision for children aged 0-5 in kindergartens and family day care (Figure A A.8). This integrated curriculum framework is compulsory for both ISCED 01 and ISCED 02 levels. The curriculum framework for ECEC is aligned with the curriculum for education for children aged 6 to 18 years old, as they both share purposes and values. The learning areas in the ECEC curriculum framework also reflect the subjects that children will encounter in school (Shuey et al., 2019[7]).

Norway has established regulations on child-staff ratios as well as child-teacher ratios both at ISCED 01 and 02 levels. For children under the age of 3, at least one staff per three children is required. For children aged 3 to 5, the required ratio is one staff per six children. For children under age 3 at least one teacher per 7 children is required. For children aged 3 to 5, the required ratio is one teacher per 14 children. There are no regulations on group sizes or composition in place (OECD, 2019[1]).

Workforce development and working conditions

The minimum educational attainment required for teachers in ECEC is a bachelor’s degree or equivalent level (ISCED level 6) (OECD, 2019[2]). Professional development for teachers is not mandatory, but participation each year is common practice (Table A A.8).

While national regulations of working conditions do not differ across early childhood development and pre-primary education, Education at a Glance 2019 only provides data on salaries and working time of pre-primary teachers. In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in Norway after 10 years of experience was USD 40 645 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), higher than the OECD average, but lower than the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point of their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2015, the total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 688 hours (the same as in ISCED 1), and data from 2014 indicate that the statutory net teaching time (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 508 hours (OECD, 2016[8]).

In ISCED 1, statutory net teaching time per school year in Norway was 741 hours. (OECD, 2016[8]). This means that teachers in ECEC have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, the total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.8. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Norway

Access to ECEC

Enrolment rates (2017)

56% (age 0-2)

97% (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC (2019)

Universal access to 41 hours of ECEC per week to all children aged 1-5. Children aged 2-5 from low-income families are eligible for up to 20 hours free of charge per week

Expenditure and funding

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

1%

1%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 25 365

USD 14 344

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

14%

14%

Governance

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

National authority (for both publically managed and privately managed settings)

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

Not applicable

Quality standards

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

No regulation on group size

Child-staff ratio:

  • for children below the age of 3, at least 1 staff per 3 children;

  • for children 3 years and above, at least 1 staff per 6 children

Child-teacher ratio

  • for children below age 3, at least 1 teacher per 7 children;

  • for children aged 3 and above, at least 1 teacher per 14 children

Group/classroom composition (2019)

No policy or regulation

Workforce development

Minimum initial educational attainment required for ECEC teachers (2017)

ISCED 6

Yearly participation in professional development (2019)

Not mandatory, but participation each year is common practice

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 40 645

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience (2018) 

Data not available

Primary teachers earn 15% more than pre-primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2015)

Data not available

1 688 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2014)

Data not available

1 508 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2016[8]), Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2016-en; OECD (2017[5]), Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en; OECD (2018[9]), Education at a Glance 2018: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-en; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en; OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

copy the linklink copied!Turkey

Access to early childhood education and care

In 2017, 40% of children aged 3 to 5 in Turkey were enrolled in ECEC, below the OECD average (87%). The percentage of 3 year-olds enrolled in ECEC was 10%, and close to 0% of children under age 3 attend ECEC in Turkey (as compared to an OECD average of 36%) (OECD, 2019[2]). There are no legal entitlements to free ECEC in Turkey. However, the constitution stipulates that all children have the right to education and preschool education is defined by law as free of charge in public settings (Table A A.9).

Governance and settings

The ECEC system in Turkey is split. The Ministry of National Education is responsible for settings for children aged 3-5. Four types of settings are in place for ISCED level 02: independent kindergarten, practice classroom, nursery classrooms and special education preschools, which can all be managed publicly or privately (Figure A A.9). The national authority is responsible for setting minimum standards and regulating group/classroom composition for both publicly and privately managed settings. The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services is responsible for three recently introduced settings for children aged 0-5 (Figure A A.9): early childhood care and education; crèche/day care centre; and special early childhood education. The starting age for compulsory primary school is 5-6 (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Figure A A.9. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Turkey
Figure A A.9. Organisation of the early childhood education and care system in Turkey

1. Settings with lighter colours are either not included in the TALIS Starting Strong data analysed for this report or data collection did not focus on the age group concerned.

Note: The Ministry of National Education is responsible for developing and supervising implementation of curricula for both ISCED 01 and 02 levels, while the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services is the responsible authority for implementing curricula in ISCED 01.

Source: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris.

Expenditure and funding

In Turkey, total expenditure on ECEC services (ISCED 0) was equal to 0.3% of GDP in 2016 (Table A A.9), lower than the average of 0.8% of GDP in OECD countries. Of the total expenditure on ECEC in Turkey, 28% came from private sources, which is 11 percentage points higher than the OECD average. Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in 2016 in Turkey was lower than the OECD average (USD 5 568 compared to USD 8 605) (OECD, 2019[2]).

Curriculum and quality standards

In Turkey, there are two curriculum frameworks that are compulsory for settings enrolling children aged 3 to 5: the Preschool education programme for 37-78 months and the Special preschool education programme for 37-78 months (the latter implemented in special education preschool settings only). At ISCED level 01, there are also two compulsory curriculum frameworks in place: the Education programme for 0-36 months and the Special early childhood education programme for 0-36 months, which is implemented in special early childhood education settings. The Ministry of National Education is the responsible authority for developing and supervising implementation of curricula for both ISCED 01 and 02 levels, while the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services is the responsible authority for implementing the curricula in ISCED 01 (Figure A A.9).

Turkey has established regulations on group size at the ISCED 02 level for both publicly and privately managed settings. The maximum group size is 20 children, however this number can be higher if the indoor space is bigger. The regulated child-staff ratio is 18 children per teacher. Regulation on classroom composition are also in place and determine that special education children aged 36-68 months are enrolled into independent kindergartens, practice classrooms and special education preschools. Special education children aged 45-68 months are enrolled into nursery classrooms. There is a quota of 2 children with special education needs for each group regardless of group size. All children regardless of their socio-economic background are enrolled in the same settings and groups (Table A A.9).

Workforce development and working conditions

In order to enter the teaching profession in ECEC in Turkey, an ISCED 6 level certification (bachelor’s degree or equivalent) is required in all types of settings. Yearly participation in professional development is mandatory for ISCED level 02 teachers in Turkey (Table A A.9). In 2018, the annual statutory salary of pre-primary teachers in ECEC settings in Turkey after 10 years of experience was USD 26 955 (converted using PPPs for private consumption), lower than the OECD average of USD 39 264, but the same as the annual statutory salary of primary teachers at the same point in their careers (OECD, 2019[2]).

In 2018, the total statutory working time per school year for pre-primary teachers in Turkey was 1 592 hours, slightly lower than the OECD average of 1 613 hours per year, and the same as teachers in primary schools and higher levels of education. However, the statutory net teaching time of preschool teachers in Turkey (actual time spent in direct contact with children) per school year was 1 080 hours, compared to 720 hours for primary teachers. This means that teachers in ECEC in Turkey have less non-contact time (e.g. for administrative work, preparing, professional development) than primary teachers. On average in OECD countries in 2018, total statutory working time per school year in ISCED 02 was 1 613 hours, and statutory net teaching time was 1 024 hours (OECD, 2019[2]).

copy the linklink copied!
Table A A.9. Overview of early childhood education and care system-level indicators in Turkey

Access to ECEC

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Enrolment rates (2017)

0% (age 0-2)

40 % (age 3-5)

Legal entitlements to free ECEC

None

No legal entitlement, but free provision

Expenditure and funding (ISCED 0)

Average expenditure on ECEC as percentage of GDP (2016)

0.3%

Annual expenditure on ECEC per child in USD, converted using PPPs (2016)

USD 5 568

Relative proportions of private expenditure on ECEC (2016)

28%

Governance

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Responsibility for setting minimum standards (2019)

Data not available

National authority for both publicly and privately managed settings

Responsibility for regulating group/classroom composition (2019)

Data not available

National authority for both publicly and privately managed settings

Quality standards

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Group size and child-staff ratios (2019)

Data not available

Group size: 20 children (can vary depending on indoor space)

Child-staff ratio: 18 children per teacher

Group/classroom composition (2019)

Data not available

Two special education children for all groups regardless of group size. All children regardless of their socio-economic background are enrolled in the same settings and groups

Workforce development

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Minimum initial educational attainment required for teachers (2019)

Data not available

ISCED level 6 (bachelor’s degree or equivalent)

Yearly participation in professional development (2019)

Data not available

Participation in two seminars per year is mandatory

Working conditions

 

ISCED 01 

ISCED 02

Statutory salary after ten years of experience in USD, converted using PPPs (2018)

Data not available

USD 26 955

Gap in statutory salary between teachers in primary and pre-primary after ten years of experience (2018) 

Data not available

Pre-primary teachers earn the same as primary teachers

Total statutory working time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 592 hours

Statutory net teaching time per school year (2018)

Data not available

1 080 hours

Note: Refer to the Reader’s Guide for information concerning abbreviations.

Sources: OECD (2019[1]), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, Internal document, OECD, Paris; OECD (2019[2]), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

References

[2] OECD (2019), Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f8d7880d-en.

[1] OECD (2019), “OECD Network on Early Childhood Education and Care: Quality beyond Regulations Survey”, internal document, OECD, Paris.

[10] OECD (2019), TALIS Starting Strong 2018 Technical Report, OECD Publishing, Paris.

[9] OECD (2018), Education at a glance 2018 : OECD indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/eag-2018-en (accessed on 21 June 2019).

[5] OECD (2017), Education at a Glance 2017: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2017-en.

[3] OECD (2017), Starting Strong 2017: Key OECD Indicators on Early Childhood Education and Care, Starting Strong, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264276116-3-en.

[4] OECD (2017), Starting Strong V: Transitions from Early Childhood Education and Care to Primary Education, Starting Strong, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264276253-en.

[8] OECD (2016), Education at a Glance 2016: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag-2016-en.

[7] Shuey, E. et al. (2019), “Curriculum alignment and progression between early childhood education and care and primary school : A brief review and case studies”, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 193, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://dx.doi.org/10.1787/d2821a65-en.

[6] Viernickel, S. et al. (2015), Qualität für alle : wissenschaftlich begründete Standards für die Kindertagesbetreuung, http://www.ciando.com/img/books/extract/3451810204_lp.pdf (accessed on 23 September 2019).

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

https://doi.org/10.1787/301005d1-en

© OECD 2019

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at http://www.oecd.org/termsandconditions.

Annex A. Country profiles of early childhood education and care systems