6. Case study: Entry requirements and initial training of vocational teachers and trainers in Norway

Young people in Norway who have completed lower secondary education have a statutory right to upper secondary education and training. At the upper-secondary level, they can opt for a general or vocational programme (Eurydice, 2021[1]). In 2021, 46% of students transiting to upper secondary education applied for vocational education and training (VET) programmes – a number that has stayed constant over the past years (Utdanningsdirektoratet, 2021[2]).

In the school year 2020/21, ten upper secondary VET programmes led to more than 190 different trade or journeyperson certificates. It is common for upper secondary schools to provide both general and vocational education, though the teaching facilities might be located in separate buildings. Most upper secondary VET programmes follow the main two-plus-two model (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]), in which students spend the first two years in an upper secondary school followed by two years of apprenticeship training in a training company or public institution. Depending on the trade, other models are also possible, such as a three-year-long school-based pathway (e.g. interior design, piano repair, or gardening), a one-plus-three model (e.g. chimney sweeper, locksmithing, or industrial footwear production), a two-plus-two-and-a-half model (e.g. remotely operated subsea operator, telecom worker, or lift installer), a three-plus-one model (e.g. heavy equipment mechanic), a three-plus-one-and-a-half model (e.g. automation or computer sciences), or a three-plus-two model (e.g. maritime electrician, aircraft power plant mechanic, or avionic mechanic). More than 70% of upper secondary VET programmes follow the three-year-long or the two-plus-two model (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]).

VET programmes are usually concluded with a trade or journeyperson examination (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2020[4]). Everyone who has completed upper secondary general or vocational education (or equivalent) can apply for a post-secondary VET programme at ISCED Level 5 (nationally referred to as tertiary VET). These programmes are offered by public and private vocational education colleges (fagskoler) and normally last six months to two years (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]).

Those who successfully complete the first two years of upper secondary VET can gain eligibility to higher education by completing a one-year-long top-up programme, which usually referred to as “supplementary studies qualifying for higher education” (Eurydice, 2021[5]). Higher education institutions offer both vocational and non-vocational programmes at ISCED Levels 6 and 7. Both programme types are considered higher education programmes, and no formal distinctions are made between vocational and non-vocational programmes. There are multiple ways to access higher education following upper secondary VET, such as the one-year-long top-up programme or completing a two-year-long vocational programme at ISCED Level 5. Moreover, there are engineering bachelor programmes at ISCED Level 6 for which a relevant upper secondary VET qualification is sufficient to be admitted. In addition, after reaching a certain age (23 or 25 years old) and gaining several years of work experience, admission to higher education is facilitated (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]).

Most vocational programmes at the upper secondary level follow the two-plus-two model, in which two years of school education precede two years of apprenticeship training. Upper secondary schools are in charge of the first two years, whereas enterprises are responsible for the final two years of training. At school, students have core subjects (fellesfag),1 which are the same for all VET programmes, and common programme subjects (programfag), which focus on trade-specific theory and practice. While the first year at school introduces the students to the vocational area, the second allows them to choose a specialisation and follow more trade-specific courses. Moreover, students already receive practical training in workshops and enterprises during the first two years of their training programme. The two-year-long apprenticeship comprises practice-based training (typically one year) as well as productive work (usually one year) at either a training enterprise or a public institution (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]). Public or private companies or organisations that have acquired the county authority approval to hire apprentices offer the practical on-the-job training part of an apprenticeship (Eurydice, 2021[6]). As there is no statutory right for an apprenticeship placement, yet one for upper secondary education, students who could not find an apprenticeship placement may opt for a one-year-long practical school-based training programme, considered to be an alternative giving the students the right to take a trade test.

VET teachers provide school-based VET in general and vocational subjects. In order to counter the VET teacher shortage and an ageing teaching force, Norway launched a knowledge promotion initiative for VET teachers (Yrkesfaglærerløftet) in 2015 (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2015[7]). The initiative encompasses a variety of measures including scholarship schemes, flexible educational pathways for prospective VET teachers and other continuing and further education measures (Cedefop, 2020[8]).

Each company providing apprenticeship placements needs to have a qualified training supervisor and at least one trainer. While enterprises can decide how they want to conduct the practical training, they need to document its planning, organisation, and assessment. In order to ensure the apprentice’s learning progress, the trainers continuously evaluate the learner’s skills development, which they formally discuss with the apprentice twice a year. The training supervisors have to make sure that the training respects the requirements defined in the Norwegian Education Act (Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Education (SIU), 2018[9]).

In order to improve the cooperation between schools and companies, VET teachers can participate in an exchange programme with trainers whereby VET teachers are sent to enterprises to have a better understanding of how on-the-job training works, and training supervisors and trainers are sent to schools to familiarise themselves with school-based VET (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]).

More details about teachers and trainers are provided in the following sections.

In Norway, the structure of the VET system and its curricula are formalised in national regulations that have to be respected by VET providers. The Ministry of Education and Research is responsible for national policy development and administration of VET at all levels. Regional county authorities are in charge of the provision of VET, allocate VET financing coming from the State budget, and take care of apprenticeship availability and supervision. National cooperation involves the National Council for VET, one vocational training council for each programme area, and national appeal boards. Regional co-operation takes place between county vocational training boards and examination boards.

Social partner representatives from business, industry and the public sector play an active role in developing the structure and curricula of upper secondary VET. They account for a majority of members of all advisory bodies for the upper secondary VET’s decision-making system. Tripartite cooperation is essential to anticipate necessary skills of the country’s workforce and ensure that VET corresponds to the needs of the labour market.

In Norway, an educational or vocational qualification in the relevant subject, four years of work experience (with some exception) and a teaching qualification (pedagogics and didactics) are required to teach in VET. For in-company trainers, there is no specific trainer qualification required, and they are generally only expected to have a relevant vocational qualification and work experience. Moreover, there is no obligatory training for trainers in Norway.

VET teachers must have a subject-related qualification in the subject they teach (e.g. a vocational qualification), a teaching qualification (focused on pedagogics and didactics) and relevant work experience. In case of teacher shortages, there is some flexibility for schools to temporarily hire VET teachers who do not fulfil all these requirements. There are no formal requirements for in-company trainers and supervisors, although they are generally expected to have vocational qualifications and work experience – and companies need to have competent supervisors and trainers to be able to deliver work-based learning.

The formal qualification requirements for all secondary teachers, including teachers of vocational and general subjects in upper secondary VET programmes, are specified in national regulations. Teachers must have two sets of formal qualifications, as well as work relevant experience:

  • Subject-related qualification: For teachers of vocational subjects, the relevant qualification is mostly a vocational one (in addition to the teaching qualification described below), although other types of relevant qualifications are also allowed. The majority of these teachers hold a trade or journeyperson certificate in relevant areas (ISCED Level 4), such as plumbing or electrical installation. In VET programmes that do not have an apprenticeship tradition (e.g. Healthcare, Childhood and Youth Development, or Service), many VET teachers have a bachelor’s degree, for instance in nursing or economics (in addition to the teaching qualification). Teachers of general subjects in VET programmes, such as mathematics or Norwegian, should have a master’s degree in the subject area and a teacher education qualification (Hiim, 2020[10]).

  • Teaching qualification: Depending on their prior qualifications and work experience, prospective VET teachers need to complete a vocational teacher education (Yrkesfaglærerutdanning, YFL) or a vocational practical pedagogical education (Praktisk-pedagogisk utdanning for yrkesfag, PPU-Y; see section Initial teacher education and training), which lead to a teaching qualification at ISCED Level 6 (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2021[11]).

  • Teachers of vocational subjects have to demonstrate that they have relevant professional work experience (outside teaching) when they start a teacher education programme. The required length of professional experience ranges from two to four years, depending on one’s formal qualification and the type of teacher education programme one is opting for (Øiestad Grande et al., 2014[12]).

The requirements for post-secondary VET teachers are less specific than those for upper secondary VET teachers. Post-secondary VET teachers should have a qualification at least at the same level as the one they teach. If there is no available tertiary education qualification in that subject, professional experience can replace the formal education criterion. Moreover, post-secondary VET teachers are required to have pedagogical and digital competences (Lyckander and Øiestad Grande, 2018[13]). A survey conducted by the Oslo Metropolitan University in 2018 mapped the general profile of post-secondary VET teachers, and found that almost 90% of the 853 surveyed teachers indicated that they have a higher education than required – in most cases, a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Moreover, around 70% have a pedagogical education. Those teaching online stated that they considered their digital competences mainly medium or good; however, only a few have a formal online pedagogical education. Around 60% of the surveyed teachers have extensive professional experience of at least ten years (Lyckander and Øiestad Grande, 2018[13]).

When schools face difficulties finding qualified teachers, they may hire teachers who do not fulfil the teacher requirements by offering them a temporary contract that expires by the end of the school year (31 July). Schools may also recruit prospective teachers who are still in the process of completing their teacher education. In this case, the employer and the teacher decide on the appointment duration and in case of non-completion of the teacher education, the employment will not continue. Moreover, those who have already been considered qualified for a teaching position without having the necessary teaching qualifications – such as those who have years of relevant experience with a relevant vocational qualification or an applicant who is in the process of relevant education – may also be temporarily hired as a teacher in case of teacher shortages (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2021[11]).

A company interested in providing work-based VET needs to be professionally assessed by the county vocational training board and then receive the formal and permanent approval by the county authority that enables it to act as a training establishment. In order to be approved, the enterprise has to satisfy the training content requirements stipulated in the Education Act2 and needs to appoint a qualified training supervisor in charge of the training (faglige ledere) as well as one or more trainers (instruktører). In Oslo, for instance, the interested company submits an application form as well as proof of the prospective training supervisor’s competence to the county authority. It is not defined what competence the supervisor must have, yet one is usually expected to have a journeyperson certificate or six years of relevant work experience. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training is responsible for a national labelling scheme for approved companies with minimum one apprentice (Utdanningsdirektoratet, 2022[14]). This agency arranges an approval meeting with the county authority and the enterprise. Before the approval meeting takes place, the company may participate in online courses designed for new learning companies and has to prepare an internal training plan. At the approval meeting, the internal training plan as well as the approval of the enterprise is reviewed by the county authority. Following the meeting, the company receives the agency’s approval decision by letter (Oslo, n.d.[15]). The number of approved apprenticeship enterprises was 20 953 in 2020/21, compared to 19 760 in 2016-17 (Utdanningsdirektoratet, n.d.[16]).

In order to become a training supervisor or in-company trainer, the candidate does not have to follow a training or hold a specific trainer qualification. Typically, supervisors hold one of the following qualifications: i) trade or journeyperson certificate, ii) master craftsperson certificate, iii) relevant higher education, or iv) relevant work experience (usually six years). Likewise, while there are no formal requirements for in-company trainers, they may showcase their competences through a vocational qualification and/or several years of work experience (Haukås and Skjervheim, 2018[3]).

ITET in Norway has two pathways leading to the same qualification at ISCED Level 6: a vocational practical pedagogical education (PPU-Y) and a vocational teacher education (YFL). Prospective in-company trainers and supervisors do not need to follow a training, but The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training offers free resources for them to prepare for their role. County municipalities, training offices, university colleges, and some enterprises also provide optional courses for training supervisors and in-company trainers.

To become a qualified VET teacher, candidates must complete a vocational practical pedagogical education (PPU-Y) or a vocational teacher education (YFL). While these two paths lead to the same qualification, they differ in length, content, and admission requirements, see Table 6.1 for a summary. The majority of prospective VET teachers opt for the vocational practical pedagogical education programme (see Figure 6.1) (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2015[17]). The teacher candidates choose which programme to enrol in according to their qualifications (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2015[7]).

Universities and university colleges offer vocational practical pedagogical education and vocational teacher education. While the vocational practical pedagogical education is offered by several universities and university colleges across the country, the vocational teacher education is only offered at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim and at Oslo Metropolitan University (Utdanningsforbundet, n.d.[19]).

The vocational practical pedagogical education is a one-year-long programme (60 ECTS). It is designed for those who have a professional bachelor’s or master’s degree, or for those who already hold a vocational (trade/journeyperson) certificate with a post-secondary qualification (ISCED Level 5) and a general university and college admission certification. Before starting the programme, the candidates need to have gained relevant work experience of at least two years if they have a professional bachelor’s or master’s degree or four years if they have a trade/journeyperson certificate (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2021[11]) (OsloMet, n.d.[20]).

The vocational teacher education is a three-year-long bachelor programme (180 ECTS). Admission to this programme requires a general study competence (meaning the candidates are eligible for university or college studies), a trade or journeyperson certificate, and at least two years of relevant work experience following the completion of their upper secondary VET programme. Those who do not have a general study competence but are at least 25 years old and have five years of full-time relevant work experience or more may also apply (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2021[11]; OsloMet, n.d.[20]).

The vocational practical pedagogical education (PPU-Y) builds on the candidate’s educational background in a relevant area and skilled work experience. The main fields of study include pedagogical theory, vocational didactics and supervised teaching, and practical pedagogical training lasting 60 days (or 12 weeks), which is divided into different stages throughout the programme (Hiim, 2020[10]; OsloMet, n.d.[21]).

The vocational teacher education (YFL) covers both vocational training and pedagogy. The programme encompasses: i) one component (60 ECTS) of in-depth studies in the future teacher’s subject, ii) one component (60 ECTS) focusing on the breadth of vocations in the programme and specifically on teaching in the first year of VET, and iii) one component (60 ECTS) of vocational pedagogy and didactics provided through practical training. The practical training lasts 130 days and takes place during the second, third, fourth and sixth semesters. 70 days are spent on vocational pedagogical practice, whereas the remaining 60 days are spent on vocational practice taking place at companies (Hiim, 2020[10]; OsloMet, n.d.[21]).

In general, PPU-Y programmes in Norway are provided in a flexible way with the majority of students opting for part-time provision (Øiestad Grande et al., 2014[12]), while the YFL programme is usually pursued full-time. Whereas students may choose to follow any of the two programmes online, they are still required to complete their practical training at schools and, if they opt for the vocational teacher education, in companies (OsloMet, n.d.[20]) (OsloMet, n.d.[21]).

There are several universities and university colleges that recognise prior learning and exempt their students from part of the entry requirements. For example, trades- or journeypersons who enter the vocational practical pedagogical education are normally required to have two years of vocational theoretical education, but universities and university colleges may exempt their students from this requirement based on their skills and experience (Utdannings-direktoratet, 2021[11]).

ITET is financed by the government. Students pay a small fee to contribute to student welfare services and a copy fee, yet they do not pay tuition fees when studying at a public institution. Moreover, they can apply for government loans (Lånekassen) to finance their study material and living expenses. Up to 40% of these loans can be converted into grants under certain conditions (Lånekassen, 2021[22]).3

School owners (e.g. municipalities, county municipalities, state or private schools) can apply for education and recruitment grants provided by the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training to enable already employed teachers or candidates the school would like to hire to acquire the necessary teacher qualification. Depending on the programme, the grant ranges from NOK 123 000 (EUR 12 900) for the vocational practical pedagogical education to NOK 246 000 (EUR 25 800) for the vocational teacher education (Utdanningsdirektoratet, 2022[23]; OsloMet, n.d.[21]).

The Norwegian Act Relating to Universities and University Colleges4 stipulates that universities and university colleges should have an internal quality assurance system. Their quality assurance practices are periodically supervised and need to be approved by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT)5 – a professionally independent body under the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Laws and regulations determine requirements for quality assurance practices. For instance, there needs to be a strategy for the practices that covers all areas relevant for the quality of the learning outcomes of students. Moreover, the institution’s board and all management levels have to endorse the practices. Students’ course evaluations also need to be taken into consideration. In addition to supervising higher education institutions’ quality assurance practices, NOKUT is responsible for the contribution to and information provision on the quality development of Norway’s higher education institutions, which provide ITET (Eurydice, 2022[24]; LOVDATA, 2021[25]; NOKUT, n.d.[26]).

There are no formal requirements to become a supervisor or an in-company trainer, yet candidates usually have a vocational qualification and relevant work experience (see above). As prospective supervisors and trainers are not required to participate in dedicated training, this section will focus on the resources candidates may refer to when preparing for their role as an in-company trainer.

The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training offers free resources for apprentice instructors on their website, which include lectures and short movies showing how instruction can be carried out in practice (Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training, 2011[27]). Moreover, county municipalities, training offices, university colleges, and some enterprises provide optional courses for training supervisors and in-company trainers (Utdanningsdirektoratet, 2016[28]). For instance, on behalf of the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences has developed a practice-oriented online course for training supervisors and in-company trainers that allows them to refine their assessment skills (HINN, n.d.[29]). Most online resources and courses are free of charge.

The online resources and the courses usually target tasks training supervisors and in-company trainers have to complete and offer advice on how to build a fruitful relationship with the apprentice. The resources also focus on core competences that training supervisors and in-company trainers should acquire, such as the ability to assess progress of the apprentice and to clearly communicate expectations, for instance. Often, training experiences are shared between the participants and external training supervisors, in-company trainers and apprentices (HINN, n.d.[29]) (Utdanningsdirektoratet, n.d.[30]). Norway provides state grants to counties for local initiatives that can be used for skills development for in-company trainers (Utdanningsdirektoratet, 2021[31]).


[8] Cedefop (2020), Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-19: Norway, https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/country-reports/developments-vocational-education-and-training-policy-2015-19-norway.

[24] Eurydice (2022), Norway: Quality assurance in higher education, https://eurydice.eacea.ec.europa.eu/.

[5] Eurydice (2021), Norway: Assessment in vocational upper secondary education, https://eurydice.eacea.ec.europa.eu/.

[6] Eurydice (2021), Norway: Organisation of vocational upper secondary education, https://eurydice.eacea.ec.europa.eu/.

[1] Eurydice (2021), Norway: Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Education, https://eurydice.eacea.ec.europa.eu/.

[3] Haukås, M. and K. Skjervheim (2018), Vocational education and training in Europe - Norway, https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/files/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Norway_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf.

[10] Hiim, H. (2020), “The quality and standing of school-based Norwegian VET”, Journal of Vocational Education & Training, Vol. 72/2, pp. 228-249, https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2020.1734062.

[29] HINN (n.d.), Vurdering i lærebedrifter og prøvenemnder, https://www.inn.no/studier/vare-studier/vurdering-i-leringbedrifter-og-provenemnder/.

[17] Kunnskapsdepartementet (2015), Yrkesfaglærerløftet - for fremtidens fagarbeidere, https://www.ntnu.no/videre/yrkesfag.

[7] Kunnskapsdepartementet (2015), Yrkesfaglærerløftet. Strategi for fremtidens fagarbeidere. [VETteacher knowledge promotion initiative. Strategy for further vocational workers]. Plan/strategi, https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/18b2675273024ad3aeae27ecc4159edc/kd_yrkesfaglarerloftet_web_01.10.pdf.

[22] Lånekassen (2021), Universitet og høgskole, https://utdanning.no/tema/utdanning/universitet_og_hogskole.

[25] LOVDATA (2021), Lov om universiteter og høyskoler (universitets- og høyskoleloven), https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2005-04-01-15.

[13] Lyckander, R. and S. Øiestad Grande (2018), Kompetanse og kompetansebehov i fagskolene, https://skriftserien.oslomet.no/index.php/skriftserien/article/view/120/120.

[26] NOKUT (n.d.), Om NOKUT, https://www.nokut.no/om-nokut/.

[9] Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Education (SIU) (2018), Vocational education and training in Europe - Norway, https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/country-reports/vocational-education-and-training-europe-norway-2018.

[27] Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (2011), Etterutdanningsmateriell for Fag- Og Yrkesopplæring, http://www.udir.no/Utvikling/Etterutdanningsmateriell_FY/ (accessed on 10 July 2020).

[12] Øiestad Grande, S. et al. (2014), Fram i lyset! En kartlegging av status og behov for lærerutdanning for yrkesfag, https://khrono.no/files/2017/11/15/fram_i_lyset_hioa.pdf.

[15] Oslo (n.d.), Søk om å bli godkjent lærebedrift, https://www.oslo.kommune.no/skole-og-utdanning/fag-og-yrkesopplaring/larebedrift/bli-larebedrift/sok-om-godkjenning/.

[20] OsloMet (n.d.), PPU for yrkesfag, https://www.oslomet.no/studier/lui/evu-lui/ppu-yrkesfag.

[21] OsloMet (n.d.), Yrkesfaglærerutdanning, https://www.oslomet.no/studier/lui/yrkesfaglaererutdanning.

[14] Utdanningsdirektoratet (2022), Bli lærebedrift, https://www.udir.no/utdanningslopet/videregaende-opplaring/bli-larebedrift/.

[23] Utdanningsdirektoratet (2022), Utdannings- og rekrutteringsstipend, https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/etter-og-videreutdanning/utdannings--og-rekrutteringsstipend/.

[2] Utdanningsdirektoratet (2021), Statistikk fag- og yrkesopplæring, https://www.udir.no/tall-og-forskning/statistikk/statistikk-fag-og-yrkesopplaring/.

[31] Utdanningsdirektoratet (2021), Tilskuddsordning til kompetanseutvikling i fag- og yrkesopplæring, https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/lokal-kompetanseutvikling/tilskuddsordning-for-lokal-kompetanseutvikling-i-fag--og-yrkesopplaringen/#a156829.

[28] Utdanningsdirektoratet (2016), Instruktørkompetanse, https://www.udir.no/kvalitet-og-kompetanse/kvalitet-i-fagopplaringen/Administrasjon/Instruktorkompetanse/.

[16] Utdanningsdirektoratet (n.d.), Godkjente lærebedrifter, https://www.udir.no/tall-og-forskning/statistikk/statistikk-fag-og-yrkesopplaring/godkjente-larebedrifter2/godkjente-larebedrifter1/.

[30] Utdanningsdirektoratet (n.d.), Vurderingspraksis, https://www.udir.no/laring-og-trivsel/vurdering/.

[11] Utdannings-direktoratet (2021), Tilsetting og kompetansekrav, https://www.udir.no/regelverk-og-tilsyn/skole-og-opplaring/saksbehandling/larerkompetanse/#videregaende-opplaring.

[4] Utdannings-direktoratet (2020), Norwegian vocational education and training (VET), https://www.udir.no/in-english/norwegian-vocational-education-and-training/.

[18] Utdanningsforbundet (2021), Lærerutdanningene - søkere og uteksaminerte kandidater 2021 (midlertidige tall), https://www.utdanningsforbundet.no/var-politikk/publikasjoner/2021/larerutdanningene--sokere-og-uteksaminerte-kandidater-2021-midlertidige-tall/#:~:text=I%202021%20har%20154%20088,12%20974%20f%C3%B8rstevalgs%C3%B8kere%20i%20fjor.

[19] Utdanningsforbundet (n.d.), Yrkesfaglærerutdanning, https://www.utdanningsforbundet.no/medlemsgrupper/videregaende-opplaring/ppu-eller-yfl-for-yrkesfagslarere/.


← 1. Norwegian, English, mathematics, physical education, natural sciences and social sciences.

← 2. The Education Act states (Section 4-3.Approval of training establishments): “Establishments that assume the responsibility for training one or more apprentices, candidates for certificate of practice, training candidates or candidates for trade certificate at work must be approved by the county authority. Approval to function as training establishments can be granted to private and public enterprises and institutions and to bodies for collaboration between enterprises that assume a joint responsibility for training (training offices or training circles). The training establishment must have been professionally assessed by the county vocational training board before the county authority can give it its approval. The county authority must place decisive emphasis on the professional assessment by the vocational training board before making a final decision” (see Act relating to Primary and Secondary Education and Training (the Education Act) - Lovdata for more information).

← 3. If they complete their education successfully, do not live with their parents, and their income and wealth do not exceed a certain amount. Having children, disabilities, falling ill, or being older than 30 entitles them to apply for additional loans, grants, or scholarships.

← 4. Lov om universiteter og høyskoler (universitets- og høyskoleloven), University and University Colleges Act.

← 5. Nasjonalt organ for kvalitet i utdanningen.

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