6. Inclusive and gender-sensitive emergency preparedness framework in Colombia

Natural and human-induced hazards have become a key challenge faced by both developed and developing countries worldwide (IPCC, 2022[1]) . Moreover, the risk of disasters has been exacerbated in the context of climate change, population growth, rapid urbanisation processes and international civil unrest. The importance of developing strategies to reduce disaster impacts on individuals, systems and countries has therefore recently gained more attention than ever before (UNISDR, 2015[2]).

The impact of disasters does not strike communities equally. Of the victims of any disaster, women and girls are disproportionately affected, since they are subject to additional vulnerabilities (Bradshaw, 2013[3]) (Enarson, 2012[4]) (Neumayer and Plümper, 2007[5]) (Thurston, Stöckl and Ranganathan, 2021[6]). This has become evident during the COVID-19 outbreak in many countries. Women have been exposed to a higher risk of domestic violence during the crisis, while having to suffer the burden of additional unpaid care due to the closure of formal care services. Similarly, women’s economic status has been negatively affected by the pandemic, since women are largely employed in the informal sector. Women-led businesses, operating on average with lower levels of capitalisation, have been at greater risk of closing for extended periods with reduced or no revenue caused by lockdown measures (OECD, 2021[7]).

In the meantime, the role of gender in disaster risk management has become evident in some countries (Box 6.1).

Countries with well-established gender equality and empowerment mechanisms have been shown during the COVID-19 pandemic to take into account the needs of women and men in decision making. The government of Iceland, for example, which had introduced gender budgeting in 2015, adopted budget measures with a gender perspective during the pandemic. Canada and Switzerland also used their existing gender-sensitive information-sharing systems to manage the impact of the pandemic effectively. The United States used consultations with external stakeholders to identify the needs of women and address their issues. A similar approach was adopted in the United Kingdom, by including the most senior minister responsible for gender equality and women’s empowerment in some of the highest-level COVID-19 Cabinet Committees (OECD, 2021[7]).

The gender perspective and women’s concerns in emergencies are still barely recognised officially by many countries, but significant acknowledgement of the importance of incorporating inclusivity and gender sensitivity in future emergency management systems emerged after the pandemic (Ryan and El Ayadi, 2020[9]).

Colombia is subject to a high risk of both natural and man-made hazards, including floods, landslides and geophysical hazards that have struck the country in the past few decades (Villamil, Santamaria and Diaz, 2016[10]). The eruption of the Colombian volcano Nevado del Ruiz in 1985 was one of the worst disasters in the country’s history, killing more than 25 000 people (Díaz-Tamayo, 2021[11]) (Erman, 2021[12]). More recently, in 2017, a landslide in the Andean city of Mocoa cost 329 lives (OECD, 2019[13]). Estimates suggest that more than 86% of the Colombian population is at medium to high risk of seismic activity, more than 31% exposed to landslide hazards and more than 28% to floods (OECD/The World Bank, 2019[14]). Colombia has also suffered from human-induced disasters, mainly due to the prolonged armed conflict in the country (Eslava, 2020[15]). Indeed, it has one of the largest displaced populations globally (Domingo, 2015[16]). The armed conflict affected around nine million people in Colombia, with more than 80% of the total internally displaced persons composed of young girls and women (OECD, 2020[17]). More specifically, the data available shows that marginalised communities of children, Afro-Colombians and poor women were the groups with the highest share of the internally displaced.

In response, the Colombian government has initiated several disaster risk management mechanisms in its development plans. For example, Colombia has followed the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, being the first Latin American country to do so (Díaz-Tamayo, 2021[11]).

Given the rising risk of disasters in Colombia, women and girls have been disproportionately affected. They are vulnerable at every stage of the disaster cycle: before, during and after (Domingo, 2015[16]). Such vulnerabilities are due to unequal access to resources, unequal representation of women in disaster risk reduction decision making, and women’s status in the sociocultural context (OECD, 2020[17]).

As shown in Chapter 2, the immediate impact of the COVID-19 outbreak was to widen gender gaps in employment, increasing gender-based violence and poverty among women. Some interventions reduced the economic impact on women to a certain extent. The Solidarity Income scheme, operated as a poverty reduction measure during the crisis, has managed to reduce poverty among women (Cuesta and Pico, 2020[18]). Meanwhile, scope remains to enhance Colombia’s gender-sensitive disaster risk management system. As noted earlier, the pandemic shed light on the importance and necessity of inclusive and gender-sensitive emergency management systems in dealing with future hazards.

This Chapter reviews the possibility of developing an inclusive, gender-sensitive disaster risk management (DRM) framework for Colombia. It also provides policy makers and practitioners input to identify opportunities and strengths, and offers recommendations on integrating a gender lens in the disaster risk management cycle.

Inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM is one way to address the disproportionate impact of disasters on women (Enarson, 1998[19]) (Ariyabandu, 2005[20]) (Bradshaw and Fordham, 2015[21]) (Domingo, 2015[16]) (Kimber, 2017[22]) (Hemachandra, Amaratunga and Haigh, 2018[23]). It provides multiple benefits for women and girls and society at large (Hemachandra, Amaratunga and Haigh, 2018[23]) (OECD, 2021[7]). It allows men and women to introduce their experience in DRM decision making, helping to reduce the disproportionate impact on women in disasters. Several frameworks have been introduced at the global level to support women’s involvement in disaster risk management and reduction efforts, as Box 6.2 shows.

Enhancing women’s access to public leadership also contributes to a more collaborative political environment. Inequality has been reduced in countries that have a greater share of women in legislatures. Increasing the number of women in politics and public decision-making roles has a positive social and economic impact, such as reduced corruption. The inclusion and engagement of women from diverse backgrounds in political roles is an essential element of a robust, diverse and representative public sector (OECD, 2017[27]). Moreover, countries with inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM systems have successfully managed the COVID-19 pandemic. In Canada, British Columbia’s provincial government adopted an interim disaster recovery framework to promote gender-inclusive recovery agendas, drawing on the Draft Principles that Guide the Province of British Columbia’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples, as well as Gender-Based Analysis Plus (OECD, 2021).

In the Colombian context, effective and gender-sensitive DRM has become important considering its disaster risk profile (Domingo, 2015[16]) (OECD, 2020[17]). As shown in Chapter 2, Colombian women make up 51% of the total population (World Bank, 2022[28]) and, despite the significant progress achieved over the years to secure women’s rights and equality, they still face violence, discrimination and limited access to productive resources during disasters. Taking into account the increasing climate-induced hazards and growing population in Colombia, the vulnerability of women and girls is expected to increase. The gender sensitivity of the existing DRM to reduce women’s vulnerability in disasters could be reinforced. The next Section assesses the existing legislative background for DRM in Colombia and analyses policies and laws to incorporate gender-sensitivity in DRM mechanisms.

In the past three decades, Colombia has developed a national disaster risk management structure to reinforce its resilience to disasters and interconnected risks (OECD, 2019[13]). In 1989, an initial disaster risk management system was established, introducing the National System for Prevention and Attention to Disasters (Sistema Nacional para la Prevención y Atención de Desastres, or SNPAD) through Law 46 of 1988. Later, in 2011, Law 4147 was adopted to establish the National Unit for Disaster Risk Management (UNGRD), with the mandate to co-ordinate the national system and guide implementation of DRM.

The present Colombian disaster management system was established after the decentralisation process was introduced in 1989. It includes institutions at national, departmental and municipal levels based on the legal frameworks set out in 1989 and 1998. The Decree-Law 919 of 1989 and the National Plan Decree 93 of 1998 assign responsibilities to all these institutions and facilitate co-ordination at the three levels. In 2004, the SNPAD was established as Colombia’s National Platform to support the implementation of and align with the framework of action adopted at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction held in in Kobe, Japan, in 2005. The SNPAD and its functions are mainly defined by the National Plan for Disaster Prevention and Response, which provides planning strategies and policy vision.

Later, the institutional framework for DRM was redesigned by adopting Law 1523 in 2012, introduced as the National Law of Disaster Risk Management and the National System for Disaster Risk Management (SNGRD). Law 1523 mandates powers to local authorities to implement DRM functions. The Disaster Risk Management Law incorporates existing norms previously defined as prevention, attention and recovery of disasters, managing emergencies and reducing risks (Guzmán Mesa, 2016[29]). Law 1523 lists 15 risk management principles. The first principle of equality states that “all natural persons will receive the same help and the same treatment when receiving humanitarian aid, in situations of disaster and danger”. The fifth principle aims to ensure the participation of ethnic communities, as well as of civic, communal, and voluntary associations in disaster risk management activities. It does not, however, have a special provision for integrating a gender perspective into Colombia’s DRM systems, although efforts have been made to encourage an inclusive DRM by promoting the participation of local communities in the process.

In 2014, Colombia introduced the National Policy for Disaster Risk Management. This was followed by the adoption of the National Plan for Disaster Risk Management (PNGRD) 2015-2025, which serves as the current national disaster risk reduction strategy (Peters, 2019[30]). Other policies associated with disaster management include: Decree 4147, which outlines the creation of the National Unit for Disaster Risk Management; the National Development Plan 2014-2018; the Departmental and Municipal Development Plans; the Act of volunteering; and the Colombian General Act of firefighters.

Additionally, some strategies and guidelines have also been established, such as: the Corporate Strategy for the Articulation of Policies and Actions on Climate Change in Colombia; the Guidelines to Optimise Urban Development Policy; the Regulation of Automotive Terrestrial Handling and Transportation of Dangerous Merchandise road. Colombian Emergency Response Platform (Plataforma Colombiana de Respuesta a Emergencias, or PCRE) attempts to solve problems related to emergencies in the country.

Colombia’s National Unit for DRM has no legal provisions or measures to support an inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM system at present. The unit is formally responsible, however, for implementing DRM according to sustainable development policies. Similarly, the most relevant legislation to Colombia’s DRM system, Law 1523 of 2012, has no legal provisions to support a gender-sensitive DRM.

Nevertheless, the Colombian government has introduced some programmes to strengthen the role of women in disaster risk reduction. A programme called “Guardians of the hillside” (Guardianas de la ladera), launched in Manizales in the department of Caldas in 2003, is still running. Led by the National Unit for Disaster Risk Management (UNGRD), it involves women, especially mothers, in risk mitigation activities in the hilly areas, to enhance their capacity by working as DRM agents and looking after hazard-prone areas. Such initiatives demonstrate some level of gender-sensitive DRM measures. Notwithstanding, as already recommended by the OECD, Colombia would benefit from reinforcing inclusive DRM policy making and policy implementation (OECD, 2019[13]), as detailed in the following Section.

As illustrated above, several global agendas and frameworks have been adopted in Colombia to guide an inclusive, gender-sensitive disaster risk reduction process. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) supports inclusive disaster risk mechanisms at all stages of disaster management and identifies women as key stakeholders who have been mostly neglected in disaster risk reduction decision making (UNISDR, 2015[2]) (United Nations, 2022[24]). Leading by example in Latin America, Colombia was one of the first countries in the region to comply with the SFDRR, and has ratified most of these frameworks and agendas (Díaz-Tamayo, 2021[11]). It has also ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), to shape the DRM system with an inclusive and gender-sensitive approach and incorporated its provisions into national development plans and policies.

Although these frameworks are integrated into the national system, their implementation is limited, as demonstrated by the number of women victims of disasters even after their ratification. Enforcing related laws and policies should thus be encouraged. International co-operation could play a significant role by helping monitor the implementation of laws and policies on gender-sensitive disaster risk management. As revealed in stakeholder discussions, a good practice can be identified on climate change initiatives undertaken in Colombia in the past few years. Most of those initiatives have been financially supported by international agencies, which create the conditions to monitor progress in implementing gender-sensitive climate change policies. Colombia could take advantage of this to reinforce the follow-up mechanisms for monitoring enforcement of gender-sensitive DRM frameworks.

The existing disaster preparedness system, as noted above, provides some important foundations for a gender-sensitive and inclusive DRM system in Colombia.

The current system is built upon several guiding principles developed in accordance with global agendas and frameworks on inclusive and gender-sensitive disaster risk reduction: rights approach, gender equality, and cultural diversity. Among the goals of the National Plan for Disaster Risk Management (PNGRD), more specifically, is to develop DRM processes with an inclusive approach. For example, training is offered to the entities of the National Disaster Risk Management System (SNGRD) to design, implement and evaluate risk management strategies with a differential approach, taking into account cultural and gender diversity. Colombia’s National Unit for Disaster Risk Management also holds a community roundtable, with participation from civil society entities, to increase integration of inclusion and protection into DRM, and to follow up and evaluate it. All these initiatives favour an inclusive, gender-specific framework.

As for organisational culture, stakeholder discussions indicate that the DRM system is highly bureaucratic at both the national and the local level. Most DRM organisations in Colombia historically have been led by men, limiting women’s active involvement. At the local level, women’s organisations have reportedly been vocal about the inclusion of their perspectives in DRM decision making. Social norms and gender stereotypes, however, still prevent women and members of marginalised groups from participating in top-level consultations (OECD, 2020[17]), including in DRM. Local DRM organisations in Colombia often report the limited resources as a barrier to developing a gender-sensitive and inclusive DRM framework.

Building on existing DRM practices, Colombia could take further steps to integrate a gender perspective and move towards an inclusive DRM system.

Promoting an adequate level of knowledge among public officers engaged in DRM is vital for effective policy making (Hilton, 2015[31]). Research indicates that updated, integrated knowledge of disaster management is limited among most staff working in the field, especially in developing countries. For example, after the devastating earthquake in Nepal in 2015, its government adopted a new Disaster Management Act in 2017, one of whose main objectives was to increase women’s participation in disaster-related decision making. The limited knowledge of community officers has proved a challenge, however, and gender sensitivity in post-disaster recovery has not yet been effectively introduced (Thapa and Pathranarakul, 2019[32]).

Stakeholder discussions reported a comparable situation in Colombia. Civil servants are interested in and committed to strengthening DRM in the country, but DRM officers’ knowledge could be improved, especially on mainstreaming gender into DRM. Understanding sector-specific gender gaps and how they increase disaster risks among women and girls could be enhanced. The Ministry of Environment has acknowledged the importance of gender-sensitive climate change policy and expressed willingness to mainstream gender in its strategies. However, as Colombian stakeholders have noted, public officials would benefit from a better appreciation of how to make the existing DRM system more inclusive and gender-sensitive.

Empowering women to participate in disaster risk governance is a key determinant of inclusive, gender-sensitive DRM systems. Women’s capacity to contribute to DRM activities has been evident in many countries (Hemachandra, 2022[33]). In Colombia, some organisations have successfully used transitional justice mechanisms to support internally displaced populations, mainly women, in receiving assistance and reparations (Domingo, 2015[16]). These initiatives have encouraged women to talk about their experiences as victims, and their expectations. One non-governmental organisation managing a slope-stabilising infrastructure project has helped build capacity among local unemployed women in risk mitigation, communication, community engagement, leadership and occupational health and safety (Wesely, 2021[34]).

These examples demonstrate Colombian women’s capacity to participate in all types of DRM-related activities, such as experience sharing and disaster risk mitigation. Colombian stakeholders have also confirmed that women are perceived as having a sound understanding of how to manage limited resources and prepare for pre- and post-disaster situations. Further measures could be introduced in Colombia, specifically at the grass-roots level, to build women’s confidence in their capacity to contribute to DRM.

Achieving gender equality in disaster risk management calls for timely, reliable gender-sensitive data and evidence. At present, the production and use of gender-disaggregated data on disasters is limited globally. If reliable data is scarce, programmes can unintentionally exacerbate gender inequalities and leave women behind, unable to provide assistance to disaster victims (Parkinson, Lancaster and Stewart, 2011[35]).

In Colombia, progress has been made on increasing the availability of gender-disaggregated disaster-related data. The number of victims is now accounted for based on their gender and ethnicity. The UNGRD recently published the “Colombian Risk Atlas: Revealing latent disasters” (Atlas de Riesgo de Colombia: revelando los desastres latentes) as part of its broader assessments, to improve understanding of the disaster risks at the national and subnational level. To evaluate the level of vulnerability of Colombia’s territory, the atlas also explicitly considers the social dimension. The Ministry of Environment is also reportedly planning to incorporate gender-sensitive data in the National Gender and Climate Change Action Plan, to measure quantitatively and qualitatively the impact on women of disasters caused by climate change.

More could be done to boost data collection to promote a more gender-sensitive DRM system in Colombia. As noted in Chapter 5, its systems for gathering and sharing gender-disaggregated data across all sectors of the economy could be increased. As stakeholders have indicated, the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies department collects a significant amount of data on the state and evolution of natural resources and the environment but does not embed a gender lens in its statistics. The interoperability of the data systems could also be enhanced to increase data sharing between sectors.

Raising awareness of the importance of integrating gender perspectives in DRM is vital for building inclusive DRM systems (Hemachandra, 2022[33]) (Latu et al., 2018[36]). In Colombia, several DRM-related awareness campaigns have been conducted to highlight the role of women in DRM. The UNGRD recently launched a programme, “The Planet Speaks Out” (El Planeta Pide la Palabra) offering a virtual space to share and exchange knowledge on disaster risks. As of June 2021, 35 events had reportedly been held, with more than 10 000 direct participants, including national and international entities, as well as Colombian departments and municipalities. The programme adopts a differential approach, giving visibility to women’s contributions to DRM. In 2019, the UNGRD held a temporary exhibition, “Science, Knowledge and Woman” (Ciencia, Conocimiento y Mujer) at the Museum of Knowledge in Disaster Risk Management, to highlight the work of women on disaster risk management both in the country and abroad (National Unit for Disaster Risk Management, 2020[37]). Nevertheless, as revealed in stakeholder discussions, more could be done to increase awareness of women’s role in managing disasters and the importance of gender-sensitive DRM, especially at the departmental and municipal level.

Role models play a significant part in contributing to equality and women’s empowerment in leadership and decision making (Latu et al., 2018[36]). They can influence communities on a wide range of policy issues and promote more inclusive disaster risk reduction measures.

In Colombia, some powerful women have initiated grass-roots disaster management and climate-related activities. For example, with other 114 rural climate change adaptation promoters, a Colombian singer who is also a climate activist has launched a project for the ecological restoration of 900 hectares of wetland in the communities of Chinchorro, Cecilia y Mata de Caña. She co-ordinated the project of the Ministry of Environment and Territorial Development and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with the funding from the Adaptation Fund. The initiative aimed to benefit more than 400 000 people in the region, who learned how to contribute to sustainable ecosystem management and effective disaster risk management practices (UNDP, 2020[38]). Having active role models working in areas related to DRM is an enabler for an inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM system, but their visibility has been limited at the national and international level, reducing their ability to raise awareness of women’s capacity across fields.

International agencies and donors can help countries achieve gender equality by providing funding, technical knowledge and capacity building, including with the aim of developing inclusive DRM systems. Some Pacific Island countries, which are highly vulnerable to climate-induced disasters, are supported by donors in including a gender perspective in their DRM practices (Charan, 2016[39]).

Several international agencies and donors have long operated in Colombia and promoted interventions targeting gender equality across many policy areas. Disaster risk management is one of them, receiving continuous support from international donor agencies (UNDP, 2020[38]). The United Nations Population Fund has supported the department of La Guajira to address gender inequalities and develop a risk index for the Colombian Risk Atlas. Such facilities are helpful for building an inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM system, but it is important to ensure funding for both national and local governments, in order to support gender mainstreaming efforts in their institutions. Similarly, considering that a gender-sensitive DRM system is still at a nascent stage in Colombia, the country would benefit from continued support in the years ahead.

Civil society organisations and NGOs play an important enabling role in supporting countries in managing disaster risks and strengthening the resilience of communities at highest risk.

In Colombia, as stakeholders interviewed confirmed during the fact-finding mission, some improvement has been noted in the involvement of civil society organisations. However, their level of engagement in the overall DRM in the country could be increased. No evidence was noted of explicit processes and strategies on how to engage them to promote women’s participation in the DRM. Looking ahead, co-ordination between such organisations with local level DRM agencies could be increased to make the DRM more inclusive and gender-sensitive.

Robust legislative frameworks supporting gender equality and mainstreaming can also help build inclusive DRM systems. A strong political leadership’s commitment to gender equality at the national level can play a significant role in making the topic a priority on the government’s agenda and advancing gender-sensitive DRM practices and approaches.

As noted in the previous Chapters, Colombia has made strides in advancing gender equality, expressing the commitment of the Colombian state to the inclusion of a gender and intersectional approach in the design, implementation and monitoring of policies, plans and programmes. As explained in Chapters 3 and 4, in recent years, significant efforts have been made to raise awareness, build capacity and introduce gender perspectives in many sectoral strategies and programmes. The Ministry of Environment recently adopted a new Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and long-term climate strategy (E26), to achieve carbon neutrality with a gender perspective. Gender has also been mainstreamed in climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. This conducive environment should also facilitate the development of a gender-sensitive and inclusive DRM framework. Interest has been growing in Colombia among political parties and politicians in supporting disaster risk management efforts and establishing legitimate power in disaster response, especially after the 2017 Mocoa landslide (UNDP, 2020[38]).

Sociocultural factors are also key to achieving a positive change in society, including gender equality (Duflo, 2012[40]). As emerged in stakeholder discussions, gender inequalities in Colombia, which often stem from deep-rooted gender stereotypes and social norms, are embedded in political, economic and social structures. Gender stereotypes can discourage Colombian women from choosing certain fields of study, such as STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), as well as from taking career engagements and working on their professional development (Franco-Orozco and Franco-Orozco, 2018[41]). This leaves them at the margins of DRM efforts, which often require leadership and scientific knowledge.

Colombia’s legacy of long-lasting armed conflict and natural calamities has made women and girls in the country more vulnerable to disasters. An inclusive, gender-sensitive DRM system would bring considerable benefits, by enhancing the understanding of women’s differential needs, reducing their vulnerabilities in the future, and making use of their efforts to encourage a more productive DRM system as a whole.

Colombia can already count on several supportive enablers for integrating gender into disaster risk management. Its strong legislative support, ratification of international frameworks, women's capacity and rising women’s movements are some of its key strengths for achieving an inclusive, gender-sensitive DRM. Building on these supportive elements, action could be considered to achieve these objectives.

  • Consider strengthening the mechanisms to monitor enforcement of legal provisions on gender-sensitive DRM. Since Colombia has formally expressed its commitment to global agendas and frameworks for gender-sensitive DRM, additional measures could be introduced to follow up the implementation of laws on DRM, as well as of global frameworks on inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM, such as sanctions for non-compliance.

  • Consider making changes to the existing DRM legislation, as appropriate, to incorporate gender-sensitivity and inclusiveness within Colombia’s disaster management-related laws. Although several legislative and policy initiatives have been initiated to strengthen DRM and support gender equality, existing regulations and policies could be enhanced by adequate provisions to make the DRM system more inclusive and gender-sensitive.

  • Continue raising awareness about the importance of adopting an inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM among line ministries and State agencies, non-governmental agencies, civil society and local communities. Awareness should also be raised to educate women, girls and other victims of disasters about their rights and responsibilities in building a more equitable society. This would also help create a positive perception of women’s capacities. Furthermore, awareness campaigns could be launched to promote the consideration of women and girls as agents of change in disasters rather than as a vulnerable group only. Raising awareness could be achieved by conducting public campaigns to educate women and girls who have been victims of disasters and invite them to share their views and experiences on how to overcome future vulnerabilities for women and girls.

  • As recommended in Chapter 5, consider strengthening the collection and use of gender-disaggregated data for gender-sensitive policy making, also on DRM-related matters, and improve data integration and exchange of information across line ministries and government agencies. Data collection and use could be enhanced at the subnational level to identify existing barriers and strengths to build an inclusive and gender-sensitive DRM system.

  • Continue mainstreaming gender considerations in the work of both national and subnational entities, by recognising the importance of gender equality as a multi-dimensional and cross-cutting policy issue. Promoting awareness of the importance of gender mainstreaming could prevent taking decisions in isolation and encourage synergies across sectors.

  • Consider strengthening women’s empowerment through capacity-building activities. Special training on disaster management could be offered to women and women-led organisations in local communities. Moreover, women should be invited to participate in all stages of the DRM cycle, since at present they are mostly involved in response and recovery measures only. As a long-term strategy, promoting STEM higher education among girls and women could also play an important role to empower them in decision making, and specifically in disaster risk management at later stages.

  • Consider exploring mechanisms to ensure stable financial support for DRM, especially at the local level. Efforts should be made to ensure continuous funding flows, and resources should be channelled to departments and municipalities that report funding limitations, to help them strengthen their DRM systems and integrate a gender equality perspective.


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