Canada

Introduction

Canada’s development co-operation is guided by its Feminist International Assistance Policy, which aims to reduce poverty and build a more peaceful, inclusive and prosperous world, in line with Canada’s foreign policy efforts. The policy seeks to maximise the effectiveness of Canada’s assistance and partnerships, improving how results are reported, and boosting investment in innovation and research.

Gender equality is the first of the policy’s six priority actions and is critical to achieving the other five: human dignity, growth that works for everyone, environment and climate action, inclusive governance, and peace and security. Canada commits in the policy to ensure that by 2021-22, no less than 50% of its bilateral international development assistance is directed to sub-Saharan Africa; and that no less than 95% of Canada’s bilateral international development assistance initiatives will target or integrate gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. The 2018 DAC Peer Review praised Canada’s focus on empowering women and girls in developing countries.

Official development assistance

In 2017, 73% of Canada’s ODA was provided bilaterally. Of this, 31% was channelled through multilateral organisations, and 26% programmed through partner countries. Bilateral ODA focused primarily on Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, with 40% of gross bilateral ODA to fragile contexts, including eight of Canada’s top 10 recipients. Overall, 87% of Canada’s bilateral sector-allocable aid targeted gender equality and women’s empowerment, 38% supported the environment and 17% supported climate change.

In 2018, Canada provided USD 4.65 billion in total ODA (preliminary data, current prices), using the new “grant-equivalent” methodology (see the methodological notes for further details) adopted by DAC members on their reporting of 2018 data as a more accurate way to count the donor effort in development loans. This represented 0.28% of gross national income (GNI). Under the “cash-flow basis” methodology used in the past, 2018 net ODA was USD 4.6 billion, which represented an increase of 5% in real terms from 2017, due to a first capitalisation of Canada’s new development finance institution and payments to multilateral organisations.

In 2017, in-donor refugee costs were USD 467 million, an increase of 14.5% in real terms over 2016, and represented 10.8% of Canada’s total net ODA.1

Canada’s share of untied bilateral ODA (excluding administrative costs and in-donor refugee costs) was 93.3% in 20172 (down from 95.6% in 2016. This calculation includes imputed student costs that are tied, which if excluded brings Canada’s untying ratio to 97.9%). The DAC country average was 82.1%. The grant element of total ODA was 94.5% in 2017. Non-grants represented 2.6% of gross ODA.

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In 2017, 73% of gross ODA was provided bilaterally, of which 31% was channelled through multilateral organisations (multi-bi/non-core contributions). Canada allocated 27% of total ODA as core contributions to multilateral organisations. Learn more about multilateral development finance

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In 2017, country programmable aid was 26%3 of Canada’s bilateral ODA, compared with the DAC country average of 48% (see the methodological notes for further details on country programmable aid). Project-type interventions accounted for 57% of this aid.

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Note: The category “other” contains technical assistance (6.5%); regional programmes (3%); and contribution to programmes of international organisations (18%).

In 2017, 35.3% of bilateral ODA was channelled through the public sector, up from 34.8% in 2016. There were small increases in amounts channelled through university, college or other teaching institutions, research institutions or think tanks (2.9% of bilateral ODA) and private sector institutions (1.5%). See the methodological notes for further details on channels of delivery.

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Note: The share of ODA channelled through the private sector was extended with the mobilisation of private finance as a main objective (more information on the amounts mobilised from the private sector is available in the dedicated section below).

In 2017, USD 882 million of gross bilateral ODA was channelled to and through civil society organisations (CSOs). Between 2016 and 2017, despite a USD 104 million increase, ODA channelled to and through CSOs slightly decreased as a share of bilateral aid (from 29% to 28%). Learn more about ODA allocations to and through CSOs and the Civil Society Days.

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In 2017, bilateral ODA was primarily focused on Asia and Africa. USD 1.0 billion was allocated to Asia and USD 1.1 billion was allocated to Africa.

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In 2017, 27.6% of gross bilateral ODA went to Canada’s top 10 recipient countries, eight of which are fragile contexts and the remaining two (Jordan and Lebanon) are host countries for sizeable refugee populations. Support to fragile contexts reached USD 1.27 billion in 2017 (40% of gross bilateral ODA).Learn more about support to fragile contexts.

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In 2017, 30.2% of Canada’s gross bilateral ODA (USD 958 million) was allocated to the least developed countries (LDCs). This is on a par with 30.7% in 2016. The DAC country average for 2017 was 23.5%. The LDCs received the highest share of bilateral ODA in 2017, noting that 44.1% was unallocated by income group. When including regional support, Canada estimates that 46% of its bilateral ODA4 was directed to the LDCs.

At 0.09%5 of GNI in 2017, total ODA to the LDCs (including imputed multilateral flows) was lower than the UN target of 0.15-0.20% of GNI.

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In 2017, 43.2% of bilateral ODA commitments were allocated to social infrastructure and services, for a total of USD 1.2 billion, with a focus on support to government and civil society (USD 342.2 million), population policies/programmes and reproductive health (USD 334.8 million), health (USD 203.6 million), and education (USD 194.1 million). Humanitarian aid amounted to USD 460.7 million. In 2017, Canada committed USD 3.9 million of ODA to support developing countries to raise domestic revenue, amounting to 0.17% of bilateral allocable aid. Canada also committed USD 186 million (8.3% of bilateral allocable aid) to promote aid for trade and improve developing countries’ trade performance and integration into the world economy in 2017.

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USD 2 billion of gross bilateral allocable ODA supported gender equality. In 2017, 87% of Canada’s bilateral sector-allocable aid had gender equality and women’s empowerment as a principal or significant objective (up from 69% in 2016), compared with the DAC country average of 36%. This is in line with Global Affairs Canada’s commitment to have 95% of Canada’s bilateral development programing target (15%) or integrate (80%) gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls by 2021-22. Learn more about ODA focused on gender equality and the DAC Network on Gender Equality.

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USD 858 million of bilateral ODA commitments supported the environment. In 2017, 38% of Canada’s gross bilateral allocable aid supported the environment and 17% (USD 382 million) focused on climate change, compared with the respective DAC country averages of 33% and 25%.

In 2017, the shares of Canada’s bilateral ODA focusing on adaptation and mitigation were similar, at 16% and 15% respectively. Learn more about climate-related development finance.

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Other financial flows and amounts mobilised from the private sector

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In 2017, Global Affairs Canada mobilised USD 265.2 million from the private sector mainly through its single-donor facilities administered by multilateral development banks, with a strong climate focus. These private funds were mobilised through direct investment in companies and project finance special purpose vehicles (SPVs).

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Of the country-allocable private finance mobilised in 2012-17, 80% targeted middle-income countries and 8% the LDCs.

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Canada’s private finance mobilised in 2012-17 mainly related to activities in the energy (77%) and other multisector (8%) sectors. Learn more about the amounts mobilised from private sector for development.

Institutional set-up

In 2017, 73.4% of Canada’s gross ODA was distributed through Global Affairs Canada, 8.7% through the Department of Finance Canada, and 17.9% through other departments and government agencies. With the amalgamation of the former Canadian International Development Agency and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade in 2013, development is now fully integrated with foreign policy, trade and security in Global Affairs Canada. The feminist international assistance policy provides the framework for Canada’s development co-operation.

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Evaluation system

The Results and Evaluation Bureau oversees all evaluation functions for Canada’s development co-operation, including the International Assistance Evaluation Division, which evaluates all programmes funded from the international assistance envelope, and the Diplomacy, Trade and Corporate Evaluation Division, which evaluates other programmes by Global Affairs Canada. In addition, the Diplomacy, Trade and Corporate Evaluation Division hosts the Evaluation Services Unit, which provides advice and supports the decentralised evaluations that programme branches across the department may commission. The Performance Measurement and Evaluation Committee provides independent review and advice on all evaluations to ensure their neutrality. Learn more about evaluation in Canada.

The bureau is currently evaluating the Ukrainian and Philippine international assistance programme, as well as the coherence of Diplomacy, Trade and International Assistance in Sub-Saharan Africa s. Read Canada’s evaluation plan.

Visit the DAC Evaluation Resource Centre website for evaluations of Canadian development co-operation.

Performance against the commitments for effective development co-operation

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Explore the Monitoring Dashboard of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation.

Government of Canada: Global issues and international assistance, https://international.gc.ca/world-monde/issues_development-enjeux_developpement/index.aspx?lang=eng

Member of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) since 1960.

← 1. The amounts are calculated on the basis of a cash-flow approach.

← 2. This calculation includes technical co-operation (that is excluded from the commitment to untie aid to the extent possible).

← 3. Country programmable aid (CPA) projects are identified via an additional reporting column in Canada’s submission to the OECD. Flagging CPA this way ensures a better fit between Formulated Planning Survey figures and actual figures in the OECD statistical databases.

← 4. Canada’s bilateral regional support is imputed based on the amount spent in the LDCs in each region, as a proportion of total country allocable aid by region.

← 5. 0.12% including Canada’s estimation on regional support.

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