copy the linklink copied!Reader’s Guide

copy the linklink copied!Data underlying the figures

The data referred to in this volume are presented in Annex B and, in greater detail, including additional tables, on the PISA website (

Five symbols are used to denote missing data:

copy the linklink copied!


The category does not apply in the country or economy concerned; data are therefore missing.


There were too few observations to provide reliable estimates (i.e. there were fewer than 30 students or fewer than 5 schools with valid data).


Data are not available. There was no observation in the sample; these data were not collected by the country or economy; or these data were collected but subsequently removed from the publication for technical reasons.


Results were withdrawn at the request of the country or economy concerned.

copy the linklink copied!Coverage

This publication features data on 79 countries and economies, including all OECD Member countries and more than 40 non-OECD Member countries and economies (see map of PISA countries and economies in “What is PISA?”).

The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

Notes on Cyprus:

  • Note by Turkey: The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”.

  • Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union: The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.

B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People’s Republic of China (hereafter “China”): Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

Data for Viet Nam are included in most tables in Annex B, but not included in tables, figures and texts that report comparisons of performance with other countries and economies because full international comparability of results could not be assured at the time this report was published (PISA 2018 Results [Volume I]: What Students Know and Can Do [OECD, 2019see Annexes A4 and A6 in [1]]).

copy the linklink copied!International averages

The OECD average corresponds to the arithmetic mean of the respective country estimates. It was calculated for most indicators presented in this report.

On 25 May 2018, the OECD Council invited Colombia to become a Member. While Colombia is included in the OECD averages reported in this publication, at the time of its preparation, Colombia was in the process of completing its domestic procedures for ratification and the deposit of Colombia’s instrument of accession to the OECD Convention was pending.

In this publication, the OECD average is generally used when the focus is on comparing performance across education systems. In the case of some countries, data may not be available for specific indicators, or specific categories may not apply. Readers should, therefore, keep in mind that the term “OECD average” refers to the OECD Member countries included in the respective comparisons. In cases where data are not available or do not apply for all sub-categories of a given population or indicator, the “OECD average” is not necessarily computed on a consistent set of countries across all columns of a table.

In analyses involving exclusively data from the optional well-being questionnaire, « Average-9 » refers to the average accross all countries and economies that distributed the questionnaire.

copy the linklink copied!Rounding figures

Because of rounding, some figures in tables may not add up exactly to the totals. Totals, differences and averages are always calculated on the basis of exact numbers and are rounded only after calculation.

All standard errors in this publication have been rounded to one or two decimal places. Where the value 0.0 or 0.00 is shown, this does not imply that the standard error is zero, but that it is smaller than 0.05 or 0.005, respectively.

copy the linklink copied!Reporting student data

The report uses “15-year-olds” as shorthand for the PISA target population. PISA covers students who are aged between 15 years 3 months and 16 years 2 months at the time of assessment and who are enrolled in school and have completed at least 6 years of formal schooling, regardless of the type of institution in which they are enrolled, and whether they are in full-time or part-time education, whether they attend academic or vocational programmes, and whether they attend public or private schools or foreign schools within the country.

copy the linklink copied!Reporting school data

The principals of the schools in which students were assessed provided information on their schools’ characteristics by completing a school questionnaire. Where responses from school principals are presented in this publication, they are weighted so that they are proportionate to the number of 15-year-olds enrolled in the school.

copy the linklink copied!Focusing on statistically significant differences

This volume discusses only statistically significant differences or changes. These are denoted in darker colours in figures and in bold font in tables. Unless otherwise specified, the significance level is set to 5 %. See Annex A3 for further information.

copy the linklink copied!Abbreviations used in this report

copy the linklink copied!


Correlation coefficient




PISA index of economic, social and cultural status


Gross domestic product


Information and communications technology


International Standard Classification of Education

Score dif.

Score-point difference


Standard deviation


Standard error

% dif.

Percentage-point difference

copy the linklink copied!Further documentation

For further information on the PISA assessment instruments and the methods used in PISA, see the PISA 2018 Technical Report (OECD, forthcoming[2]).

copy the linklink copied!StatLink picture

This report has StatLinks at the bottom of tables and graphs. To download the matching Excel® spreadsheet, just type the link into your Internet browser, starting with the prefix, or click on the link from the e-book version.



[1] OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris,

[2] OECD (forthcoming), PISA 2018 Technical Report, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2019

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at