Chapter 9. Biodiversity

This chapter reviews the pressures on Peru's biodiversity, including agro-biodiversity, the number of species at risk, and the regulatory framework to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. It also assesses progress (or lack of progress) in the use of direct regulations and economic instruments for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, such as protected areas, land use planning, granting of property rights, public financial support and payments for ecosystem services.


Key findings and recommendations

As one of 17 countries recognised for their megadiversity, Peru has ecoregions ranging from the coastal desert to the Amazonian tropical forest. Of the 117 types of biomass recognised in the world, 84 are present in Peru. Of its nearly 129 million hectares of land, just over 73 million hectares (57%) have forest cover. The loss of original forest ecosystems has continued into this century; in the Amazon region, an average of 119 000 hectares was lost every year in 2003-2013, equivalent to 1.8% of the Amazon forest. The bulk of that loss is due to conversion on properties smaller than 5 hectares. Peru has two main marine ecosystems: tropical and temperate-cold. The first has a great diversity of species, but in small volumes; while the second has little diversity but large volumes per species. Along its 3 080 km of coastline, Peru has major industrial and artisanal fisheries, of which anchovies are the most important.

The main pressures on land-based ecosystems arise from changes in land use, primarily deforestation for lumber; expansion of the agricultural frontier through traditional or mechanised crop farming; livestock-raising; real estate and industrial projects; and the construction of large infrastructure works. Also significant is the overexploitation of flora and fauna through illegal hunting and trading. Recently, remote sensing technologies have shown that forest loss as a result of selective felling is a serious problem, along with the advance of the agricultural frontier. The chief causes of deforestation include the lack of property rights and the absence of land-use planning; the low market value of forest land compared to other land uses; sector development policies that run counter to the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; large-scale highway, hydroelectric or mining infrastructures that lead to changes in land use and to the influx of settlers; and shortcomings in governance capacities.

Agriculture occupies around 38.7 million hectares of Peru’s land area (30% of the total), comprising 2.2 million farms, almost all of them smaller than 10 hectares and only 25% capacity utilisation. The vast majority of farmers are smallholders growing traditional crops. Only 28.8% of farmers have title to their land, while the remainder farm communal lands or are tenants or squatters. The land has been occupied haphazardly, as exemplified both in subsistence farming, which is practised in areas that should be set aside for forestry or watershed protection, and in export agriculture, which is heavily practised in water-deficit zones that cannot guarantee the activity’s sustainability. Peru’s agrobiodiversity is among the richest in the world and represents one of its most valuable natural and cultural assets. Of the four most important crops for human consumption —wheat, rice, maize and potatoes— Peru has great genetic diversity in the latter two. It also has 128 species of domesticated native plants, and its domesticated animals include the alpaca, the llama and the native duck (pato criollo). Peru’s indigenous peoples and its cultural diversity represent an important reservoir of knowledge on the uses and properties of flora and fauna species, as well as the use of genetic resources (4 400 plants of known uses, and thousands of varieties). Nonetheless, this diversity has been shrinking over time. Policy efforts to promote agrobiodiversity will be put to the test by the heterogeneous nature of the agriculture sector, in terms of technological differences, market linkages, and access to financial services, compounded by the country’s geographical and climatic diversity.

Development of the forestry sector falls far short of its potential in terms of surface area and biological diversity. Peru is in fact a net importer of forest products, thanks to the low levels of industrialisation and value added. The area under commercial plantation is still very small; and less than half of the exploitable forest area is under operating concession. The extent of land-use changes is reflected in the high level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in this category. Peru also exhibits seven of the nine characteristics of vulnerability recognised by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; and it could be exposed to even greater losses of biodiversity as this problem becomes more acute.

The Constitution of Peru declares natural resources to be part of national heritage; and it tasks the State with setting environmental policy and determining the sustainable use of those resources. The State is explicitly obliged to promote the conservation of biological diversity and protected natural areas, and to promote the sustainable development of the Amazon region. In 1993 Peru ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB) and to date has submitted five national reports under the Convention. Within the Ministry of the Environment (MINAM), the Biological Diversity Branch of the Vice-Ministry for Strategic Development of Natural Resources is responsible for policies on biodiversity. There is also a National Commission on Biological Diversity (CONADIB), which is an advisory and co-ordination body on the sustainable use of biodiversity, charged with monitoring fulfilment of the commitments emanating from the Convention and related treaties (the Ramsar Convention, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, etc.), as well as the design, update and implementation of the National Strategy on Biological Diversity (ENDB) which extends to 2021. Pillar 1 of the National Environmental Policy provides for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and biological diversity. The Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity Act, and its regulation, make ENDB, along with its 2014-2018 Action Plan of November 2014, the primary instrument for managing biodiversity in Peru, and for halting the loss and deterioration of the components of biological diversity, improving their management, and boosting opportunities for sustainable use and fair and equitable distribution of their benefits.

With a view to conserving and making rational use of the country’s megabiodiversity, as well as placing due value on traditional knowledge, ENDB sets out six general objectives for environmental policy, with targets to be attained by 2021. The National System of State-Protected Natural Areas (Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado – SINANPE) has been steadily expanded; and in June 2015 it embraced a total of 64 protected natural areas (ANPs), versus 40 in 2003, covering 16.6 million hectares (17% of national territory). There are also 17 regional conservation areas administered by the regional governments, and 82 private conservation areas. Of the 16.6 million hectares included in ANPs, 97.6% are on land and just 2.4% are in marine zones. Conditions are improving, as can be observed in the fact that, while only 33 ANPs were staffed and 17 had master plans for their management in 2003, the corresponding figures were 61 and 41 by 2015. Nonetheless, only 12 of the country’s 21 terrestrial ecoregions are represented in ANPs (CDC-WWF MINAM); and the master plans do not necessarily ensure governance for their sustainable use. Eco-tourism has been growing in importance, and in 2013 there were more than 1.3 million visits to ANPs in the national system.

Most of the funding for biodiversity conservation comes from the public treasury: that contribution rose by 500% between 2004 and 2010, but it still falls short of needs. A study by Universidad del Pacífico points to an annual budget shortfall of PEN 115 million, or roughly USD 35 million. Supplementary contributions come from the private sector and international co-operation, and also from projects that involve payment for ecosystem services. The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources and the integrated and sustainable management of ecosystems ranked second and third among environmental expenditure items for the period under analysis, jointly accounting for roughly a third of the total. The economic instruments applied include the entry fee to ANPs, of which 70% of the proceeds are reinvested in the conservation of those areas, and the incipient introduction of a system of payments for ecosystem services. There are also direct transfers to indigenous and rural communities for forest conservation.

  • Step up efforts to improve, update, and manage scientific knowledge on ecosystems and species (inventories of flora and fauna, endangered species) and on the genetic diversity of domesticated species of flora and fauna, in order to contribute to the better design of policies for the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity and to the monitoring of, and regular reporting on, its status.

  • Strengthen interministerial co-ordination mechanisms, such as the National Commission for Biodiversity, so they can contribute to the effective incorporation of the sustainable use of biodiversity into economic and sectoral policies. Support the full consideration of the impact on land and marine biodiversity in EIA and SEA processes, in the granting of environmental permits and in territorial governance, through the development and use of technical guides.

  • Establish a clear legal framework for access to genetic resources and traditional knowledge in order to encourage research into, and a greater understanding of, biodiversity; and to allow possible commercial developments with transparent mechanisms for the distribution of benefits, in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization. Lay the foundations for scientific and biotechnological developments related to the sustainable use of biodiversity within the established legal framework.

  • Strengthen the technical and financial capacities of the National System of Protected Natural Areas (SINANPE) and develop an integrated view of the complementary roles of public and private protected areas, for the development of an interconnected and coherent network of core areas, buffer zones and biological flows and corridors.

  • Assign political priority and the necessary means for the implementation of the National Strategy and Plan of Action for Biodiversity towards 2021 (EPANDB), as a key tool for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in Peru, including agrobiodiversity. Complete the Regional Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (EPARDBs) that are still pending, and ensure their implementation with the necessary technical and financial support.

  • Continue with ongoing efforts to capitalise on the economic potential of the sustainable use of biodiversity and agrobiodiversity, through such activities as ecotourism, biotrade, gastronomy, establishment of world-class research centres, traditional medicine, etc. Develop the regulations to the Payments for Ecosystemic Services Act to strengthen the provision of those services (regulation of water in river basins, the maintenance of biodiversity, carbon sequestration, scenic beauty, soil formation and the provision of genetic resources) and, as applicable, sustainable related economic activities.

1. Current situation and main trends

1.1. Current situation

Peru is recognised as one of 17 “mega-diverse” countries which between them hold over 70% of the planet’s biodiversity, represented by a wide variety of ecosystems, species of flora and fauna and genetic diversity. Of its land area of 128 521 560 ha, 57% has forest cover (MINAM, 2011).

Biodiversity makes a decisive contribution to the national economy through different goods and services, such as regulation of the water cycle, which provides water for human consumption, agriculture, and hydroelectric power generation, income from ecotourism and the commercialisation of native species and their by-products. Trade in native species, including biotrade, has been expanding; and in 2013 it involved 46 species of native flora and fauna and generated earnings in excess of USD 218 million. The concept of investing in biological diversity is starting to gain traction in Peru and to generate wealth for certain less well-off sectors (MINAM, 2010).


Peru’s wide range of ecosystems, largely determined by the cordillera of the Andes that spans the length of the territory and at some points rises above 6 000 m in altitude, consists of a complex combination of climate, soils and micro-environments that sustain extensive biological diversity. The main continental ecosystems are the planes, including tropical forests; mountains, and forests that are dry for part of the year. The “fragile ecosystems”, defined as such in the General Environment Act (Law No. 28611), encompass deserts, semiarid zones, mountains, swamps, marshes, bays, islets, wetlands, high Andean lakes, coastal hills, cloud forests and relict forests, which are also important (MINAM, 2014c).

The forest (selva) region contains over 94% of the country’s forested land. The Amazon forest contains a wide variety of flora and fauna species, some of which are economically important. The coastal region accommodates algarroba forests, including riparian forests; mangrove swamps and dry savannah forests. Peru has around 73 million ha of natural forest, most of which are in a good state of conservation, but they have been shrinking owing to intensive deforestation (MINAM, 2014c).

The coastal marine ecosystem extends for 3 080 km and spans a marine area of 790 000 km², encompassing 77 islands. This ecosystem contains mangroves that provide a habitat to large numbers of aquatic and migratory birds. There are 92 wetlands, five of which have been declared of international importance (RAMSAR sites), and macroalgae meadows containing a wide variety of species. The continental water ecosystems consist of 62 hydrographic units along the coast, 74 in the Amazon basin and 13 in the Lake Titicaca watershed. The strongest flowing rivers form part of the Amazon system, while most of the lakes and lagoons are in the high Andean area (MINAM, 2014c).


Peru is home to over 20 375 species of flora, 523 species of mammal, 1 847 species of birds, 446 species of reptile and 1 070 marine fish species, (MINAM, 2014a); it also has 84 of the planet’s 117 life or biomass zones, also known as “biotic areas” (ONERN, 1976). Although the biological communities of the continental waters have been little studied, the composition and distribution of fish species is well-known. Of the 1 070 species recorded in late 2013, 50 lived in rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean, from Tumbes to Tacna; 30 live in Lake Titicaca, and 980 in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that the number of new species to be discovered in the near future will be equivalent to 20% of the current total (MINAM, 2014c).

Peru belongs to the group of like-minded megadiverse countries, which co-operate in identifying common interests, to promote conservation and the sustainable use of biological diversity. This group has acted as a negotiating bloc adopting common positions on access to genetic resources and the distribution of their benefits.

1.2. Pressures on ecosystems and species

Pressures affecting ecosystems

The greatest threats to terrestrial ecosystems stem from land-use change, as the agricultural frontier expands to devote land to traditional or mechanised cropping, lumber or livestock production for export; pollution of water and soil; extractive activities such as oil drilling, hydropower generation —including the construction of high tension lines— and mining; large infrastructure works, and climate change. These processes have resulted in haphazard land occupation which affects biodiversity.

Box 9.1. Desertification

Peru is one of the countries that is now facing water stress problems, since it has less than 2 000 m³ of water per capita per year, which does not satisfy demand (MINAM, 2011). Moreover, soil degradation, of high-to-medium intensity, affects 61.31% of the territory; the most exposed areas being the central coast and highland (sierra) zones, and the department of Madre de Dios in the forest (selva) region.

Agriculture and deforestation are the main causes of land degradation, which takes different forms in the various zones of the country. On the coast, this is largely due to salinisation, which is particularly intensive in the northern coastal zone (Piura-Lambayeque), a large area of export-oriented agricultural production. In the highland zone it is basically caused by inefficient water use; and in forest areas it is due to deforestation and pollution from mining activity.

Most desertified areas, along with those in the process of desertification, are inhabited by population groups with medium to low development indices; and this is compounded by the fact that in arid zones climate change has accentuated their deterioration (MINAM, 2011).

Source: Dascal (2012) and MINAM (2011), “Mapa del patrimonio forestal nacional” [online]

Figure 9.1. Deforestation in the Amazon region, 2000-2014

Source: MINAM (2015), Mapa nacional de cobertura vegetal. Memoria descriptiva.

Of the over 70 million ha of different types of forest that exist in Peru, over 90% are Amazon forests. Between 2001 and 2014, these declined by roughly 1.7 ha (Figure 9.1, Figure 9.2 and Box 9.1), which implies an average annual loss of 150 000 ha.

Agricultural expansion remains the chief cause of deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon region; and, in fact, it is estimated over 90% can be attributed to this process. A large proportion of land conversion, which mostly occurs haphazardly, reflects the slash-and-burn practices of smallholder farmers with land areas of less than 5 ha. This is exacerbated by inappropriate cropping techniques which leach soils and undermine fertility. For that reason, 60% of occupied land (about 5 million ha) is abandoned (Chapter 10). The absence of property rights and the relatively low market value of forestry land, contribute to unplanned land occupation. In addition, the first of these factors gives rise to conflicts in indigenous areas.

Figure 9.2. Loss of forests, 2001-2014

Source: Ministry of Environment (MINAM), on the basis of National Programme for the Conservation of Forests, “Plataforma de monitoreo de los cambios en la cobertura de los bosques” [online]

The coastal region is also exposed to deforestation and degradation caused by the conversion of land to crop farming and livestock and lumber activities. In the Andean region, biodiversity is affected by several factors, particularly land-use change or inappropriate land use. Cropping in protected zones and overgrasing have caused serious land erosion, which leads to its desertification (MINAM, 2014c).

The application of remote sensing technologies in the last few years has revealed that large swathes of forest are being lost through selective felling. In years of serious drought, or owing to malicious human action, forest fires have compounded the pressures on forestry ecosystems and biodiversity (MINAM, 2014c). The scale of these phenomena is reflected in the fact that, unlike what happens in the emerging and industrialised economies, land-use change is the main source of GHG emissions in Peru, representing 35% of the total. Mechanised agriculture and intensive livestock breeding constitute the second largest emission source, accounting for 21% of total emissions (MINAM, 2014d). Consequently, over half of all emissions in Peru come from the agriculture and forestry sectors (MINAM, 2010).

In the marine environment, one of the greatest pressures stems from fishing activity (Chapter 11), which has been identified as one of the chief threats to biological diversity, because there are signs that certain species are being overfished. This is compounded by water pollution associated with urban and agricultural development in the coastal zone, where most of the population lives (Figure 9.3). Coastal land-use change owing to the expansion of aquaculture has irreversible effects, particularly in mangrove swamps (MINAM, 2014c).

The proportion of fish populations that live within secure biological limits is declining; and the marine trophic index1 decreased by 0.15 per decade in 1950-2008 owing to fishing activity. The volume of marine resources brought to shore also declined between 2001 and 2010. Apart from pelagic species (tuna, mackerel, samasa or anchovy nasus and shark) and demersal species (ayanque, coco and tollo), for which catches have been increasing since 2004-2005, catch volumes of all other species have declined (Office of the President of the Council of Ministers, 2013).

The continental water ecosystems provide important provisioning and regulation services (MINAM, 2014c). Their biological communities are very important in the Amazon region, owing to the protein contribution for human consumption and to the use of constituent species for ornamental purposes. Knowledge of these communities is growing, supported by scientific collections and studies that have found that the water quality deterioration caused by waste discharge and pollution generated by illegal mining are the chief threats to the species of the Lake Titicaca watershed. In addition, in Peru’s three river basins, introduced and invasive fish species have been identified (particularly poeciliids, cichlids and trout), along with algae.

Figure 9.3. Ocean Health Index 2015

Source: Ocean Health Index, “Annual Scores and Rankings” 2015 [online]

Compounding this, the impact of climate change is set to intensify even more in the future, including the El Niño phenomenon, to which Peru is highly exposed. The most vulnerable Andean zones are those in which human intervention is most recent, such as moorlands and cloud forests. The first is subject to the invasion of woody plants, and the localised elimination and lack of land on high slopes that can be colonised by other species. Secondly, conservation of cloud forests depends on fragile atmospheric conditions, which can change rapidly as a result of global warming (Herzog  et al., 2011). The relict forests are also highly vulnerable owing to their small size.

Pressures affecting species

Many of the species existing in Peru are included in the CITES appendices. The index of species of wild flora consists of 2 629 taxa or related organisms, including subspecies and varieties of plants grouped in six botanical families, including the Orchidaceae family (88%) and the Cactaceae (10%) (MINAM, 2011). Peru’s wild fauna consist of about 500 species, grouped in 66 families; 26 of these are Trochilidae (hummingbirds) and 11% correspond to Psittacidae (parrots or macaws) (MINAM, 2016a).

The Ministry of Agriculture is tasked with preparing and updating the official classification of species of wild flora and fauna by conservation status. Supreme Decrees 004-2014-MINAGRI and 43-2006-AG approved the lists of endangered species of flora and fauna, in which there was an increase in the number of birds, plants and amphibians included on the red list (Table 9.1) (MINAM, 2014a).

Table 9.1. Endangered species of flora and fauna


Species of fauna

Species of flora

Critically endangered









Near threatened






Source: Government of Peru, “Supreme Decree No. 004 2014 MINAGRI” [online], for fauna and “Supreme Decree No. 43-2006- AG” [online], in the case of flora.

The overexploitation of flora and fauna for hunting or illegal trade changes the distribution, abundance and composition of wild populations. This affects both genetic diversity and the flows of energy and resources in natural trophic chains. The forestry species of greatest relevance for timber use include the caoba and cedar, which command the highest prices on national and international markets. It is estimated that between 40% and 60% of the species are felled without respecting the required minimum diameter or allowing for sufficient natural regeneration of the populations. Nonetheless, genetic diversity of these and other species is deemed to be adequately represented in the protected areas.

2. Policy objectives and biodiversity conservation

The value of Peru’s great natural wealth is recognised in article 68 of the Political Constitution, which refers to the importance of biological diversity and tasks the State with promoting its conservation. This mandate was corroborated in 1993, when Peru ratified the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CDB), through Legislative Decision 26.181. The CBD objectives are the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable share in the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. This legal instrument served as the basis for approval in 1997 of the Biological Diversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Act (Law No. 26839), which reiterates the principles and definitions contained in the Convention.

2.1. National objectives and international commitments

The National Strategy on Biological Diversity (ENDB) (MINAM, 2014a), formulated in response to the decisions adopted at the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, and in consonance with the provisions of the Biological Diversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Act (Law No. 26839), is the main legal instrument governing biodiversity in Peru.

Table 9.2. Objectives and targets of the current National Strategy on Biological Diversity

Strategic objectives


1. Improve the status of biodiversity and maintain the integrity of the ecosystemic services it provides.

1. Consolidate the sustainable management of biodiversity in at least 17% of the land environment and 10% of the marine environment, according to the different modalities of conservation and on-site management.

2. Prepare and implement 15 conservation plans for endangered species.

3. Develop at least 10 programmes of conservation and sustainable use of the genetic diversity of species of which Peru is the centre of origin and diversification.

2. Increase the contribution of biodiversity to national development, by improving the country's competitiveness and sharing the benefits equitably.

4. Recognise the value of ecosystemic services; promote five bio-businesses; commercialise two new biotrade products with value-added.

5. Implement access to, and the distribution of, benefits from the use of genetic resources in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol.

3. Reduce direct and indirect pressures for biological diversity and its ecosystemic processes.

6. Raise citizen awareness and valuation of the contribution of biodiversity to national development and welfare by 20%.

7. Reduce the rate of degradation of ecosystems, particularly forestry and fragile ecosystems, by 5%.

8. Improve the effectiveness of the control, supervision and inspection of biodiversity use; increase regulatory mechanisms on endangered species and invasive exotic species.

4. Strengthen the capacities of the three levels of government for sustainable management of biodiversity.

9. Strengthen institutional capacities at all government levels for the effective and efficacious management of biological diversity.

5. Improve knowledge and technologies for the sustainable use of biodiversity, and give greater value to indigenous peoples' traditional knowledge on biodiversity.

10. Increase scientific knowledge, technological development and innovation, through the integration of the first and traditional knowledge relating to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

11. Generate new knowledge on genetic diversity and the territorial distribution of 10 species of which Peru is the centre of origin and diversification, for their conservation and the equitable distribution of their benefits.

12. Improve the protection, maintenance and recovery of the traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples.

6. Strengthen co-operation and participation by all sectors of the population, for the governance of biological diversity.

13. Strengthen the decentralised governance of biodiversity, under a participatory and intercultural approach at the national, regional and local levels, in the framework of international treaties.

Source: MINAM (2014a).

The new national strategy on biological diversity, which is an update of the version adopted in 2001, establishes six general objectives for environmental policy, each of which is subdivided into targets for 2021. These include the strengthening of the ecosystemic approach in domains such as participatory governance and intersectoral management; the fair and equitable distribution of benefits; and the management of biodiversity “with a landscape and watershed view”. Another very important aspect of the strategy is the “prioritisation of on-site conservation with participation by the local population in centres of origin of agrobiodiversity, and the systemisation and monitoring of more efficient control measures to reduce the adverse impact of economic activities”. This strategy also establishes quantifiable commitments that facilitate the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation process, thus distinguishing it from its predecessor.

Box 9.2. Biotrade potential of native species: the case of sacha inchi

Peru’s foreign trade figures show that between 2006 and 2011 exports of biodiversity products totalled USD 1.121 billion (MINCETUR, 2014b). Significant progress has been made on policies on this subject in the ENDB framework, and the creation of the National Biotrade Commission, consisting of representatives from the public and private sectors (CAF/PROMPERU, 2014). Also worthy of mention are the activities included in the Perúbiodiverso (PBD) and Biocomercio Andino projects, among others.

One of the products for which trade has been promoted in the Biocomercio Andino project is a native plant of the Amazon forest region known as sacha inchi. This is catalogued in Law No. 28477 and in the regional biotrade programme as a native crop that forms part of Peru’s natural heritage. The plant is one of the main sources of omega-3-rich oils and low in saturated fats; and it is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Most of the output of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) in 2013 was exported to Canada (26.24%) and the United States (19.97%) (MINCETUR, undated). It is mainly grown in the San Martín zone and to a lesser extent in the departments of Amazonas, Cusco, Junín, Loreto, Pasco and Madre de Dios, in tropical rainforests or in low-lying land no higher than 900 m above sea level.

The cultivation of sacha inchi has had positive environmental effects in areas that had previously suffered from human intervention and degradation (Department of San Martín, 2009), since it helps to revitalise depleted soils and reduce the compacting and erosion, while also increasing the volume of organic matter.

In general, the pilot activities implemented in the Andean Biotrade Project (MINCETUR, undated) have been beneficial. These have included the creation of 20 value chains in 15 regions; the production and marketing of over 20 products (including cacao, Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), lucuma, quinoa, native potato, Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) and chestnut), and the development of gastronomy and ecotourism activities. In all cases, technical assistance was provided, and training was provided to participating firms on sustainable resource use, and the application of environmental sustainability standards and related practices. Although some producers have been accorded organic certification, which gives them access to specialised markets, further progress needs to be made in defining and enhancing supply quality parameters and promoting certification.

Source: Prepared by the author on the basis of CAF/PROMPERU (2014), Department of San Martín (2009), MINCETUR (2014b)and MINCETUR, “Sacha Inchi”, Biocomercio Andino [online]

Peru has submitted five national reports on compliance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which facilitated the application of the green agenda. In addition, as the agreements of the “Rio Summit” of 1992 apply to Peru’s ecosystems and interdependent issues, a synergetic approach is being prioritised. This is fundamental for achieving the national objectives, optimisation of resources and the fulfilment of international commitments.

In 2015, the National Wetlands Strategy (ENH) was updated in line with the Strategic Plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Ministry of Production, MINAM and MINAGRI were tasked with jointly implementing CITES. In the case of reducing direct and indirect pressures on biodiversity (ENDB Strategic Objective 3), the lines of action of the National Climate Change Strategy, relating to the conservation of forest carbon resources, strengthen the synergy of the activities envisaged. In addition, the National Action Programme to Combat Desertification, which is currently being updated, coincides in scope with ENDB Strategic Objective 1 (Improve the status of biodiversity and maintain the integrity of its ecosystemic services).

2.2. Institutional framework

The General Directorate of Biological Diversity of the Vice Ministry of Strategic Development of Natural Resources is responsible for national policies on biodiversity, a domain in which it acts in co-ordination with the Office of International Cooperation and Negotiation, attached to the MINAM General Secretariat.

Pursuant to the provisions of Supreme Decree 007-2009-MINAM, the National Commission on Biological Diversity (CONADIB) serves as a consultative body on the sustainable use of biodiversity. The Commission, consisting of representatives from the public and private sectors, monitors the implementation of the commitments arising from CDB and related international agreements, including the Ramsar Convention, CITES, and the Convention on Migratory Species. It is therefore responsible for formulating and updating ENDB and making sure it is applied.

The General Directorate of Forestry and Wild Fauna of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation regulates and promotes the sustainable use and conservation of forestry and wild fauna resources (Forestry and Wild Fauna Act, Law No. 27308, and the regulation governing the organisation and functions of the Ministry). The regulation requires the official classification of species of wild flora and fauna to be updated according to their conservation status every three years. This makes it possible to impose bans on hunting, capture, holding, transport or exportation for commercial purposes; and it also makes it possible to identify needs for protection or restoration, and the feasibility of sustainable use of the species.

International co-operation

International co-operation is one of the aspects of environmental management in which major progress has been made. Peru’s affiliation to the most important international conventions and treaties provides a basis for continuing to strengthen the development of public policies on the environment, and for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in relation to species (wild flora and fauna), ecosystems (recognition of the economic value of the services they provide, including the carbon sink function), and genes (origin and diversification of agrobiodiversity and many other still unexploited resources).

The National Forest Conservation Programme for Mitigation against Climate Change, of 2010, aims to mitigate GHG emissions, by preserving a total of 54 million ha of forests by 2021. Under this commitment, the government started the preparation process for the United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) at the national and subnational levels. In addition, a national REDD+ register was created, and several pilot projects have begun and many others are being formulated, all of which have foreign and domestic financing and certification of compliance with international standards.

For satisfactory execution of the REDD+ projects, legal problems need to be resolved, and clarity be given to territorial management and landholding rights. Although the approval of the Indigenous or Originating Peoples’ Right to Prior Consultation Act (Law No. 29785) represents progress in terms of equity and protecting the rights of those peoples, it would also be necessary to consolidate application of the principle of free, prior and informed consent (CIFOR, 2013).

In 2013, MINAM drew up a proposal for Peru’s preparation for the REDD+ program, approved in 2014, with the aim of acceding to the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). In the latter part of that year, a start was also made on formulating the National Strategy on Forests and Climate Change (ENBCC), which is a comprehensive legal mechanism for addressing deforestation, and will serve as the framework instrument for the activities and investments envisaged in the Forestry Investment Programme and preparation proposal for the REDD+ program, among others. In 2014, representatives of the National Forest Conservation Programme for the Mitigation of Climate Change (PNCBMCC), the National Forestry and Wild Fauna Service (SERFOR) and regional governments participated in the definitive formulation of ENBCC, which contains measures to reduce the rate of deforestation and forest degradation, under an integrated management approach for landscape and development with minimal emissions, with a view to reducing GHG emissions from the land-use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector.

Policy tools and the effects of their application

To meet the challenge of reversing the problems of environmental pollution and degradation, along with the consequent loss of biodiversity, Peru has pursued a series of legislative and institutional reforms over the last few years, particularly since 2008. Alongside these reforms, which have enabled major progress in establishing baselines on the status of ecosystems, there is a serious lack of information on the trends arising from the failure to adopt corrective measures, which would facilitate analysis of the viability of the objectives proposed in the new general proposal.

It is also recognised that sector-level public policies to promote production are contrary to the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity (MINAM, 2014c). This situation has been exacerbated by institutional weakness to halt deforestation, and the low valuation placed on standing forests and environmental services that they provide (Chapter 10).

Classification of ecosystems

There is currently no national map of ecosystems considered as functional units, which would make it possible to classify, manage and monitor them; although a start has been made on developing the methodology to design this. The identification and classification of ecosystems has drawn on the following sources among others: the Holdridge life zone classification system, Mapa ecológico del Perú, (ONERN, 1976), Mapa de las regiones naturales del Perú (Pulgar Vidal, 1981), Mapa de ecorregiones del Perú (Brack, 1986, cited in MINAM, 2014c), Mapa forestal del Perú of the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG, 2006, cited in MINAM, 2014c) and Mapa de nacional de cobertura vegetal. Memoria descriptiva, published by MINAM in 2015. None of these documents use the category “ecosystem” (MINAM, 2014c).

Figure 9.4. Plant cover

Source: Ministry of Environment on the basis of “GeoServicios” [online]

To formulate various legal instruments and produce the latest reports on CBD compliance, use was made of the classification contained in Mapa nacional de cobertura vegetal del Perú. Memoria descriptiva (MINAM, 2015b), on the types of natural plant cover (Figure 9.4). The map of wetlands and protected natural areas was also used to assist in the analysis of ecosystem and biodiversity status. The National System of State-protected Natural Areas (SINANPE) applies the classification used in Mapa de ecorregiones del Perú, which is based on the ecoregion typology proposed by Dinerstein et al. (1995) (MINAM, 2014c).

National System of State-protected Natural Areas

Protected natural areas (ANPs) are essential for biodiversity conservation.2 The National System of State-protected Natural Areas (SINANPE) is one of the five national systems of interministerial environmental management in Peru; while the Protected Natural Areas Master Plan is the instrument that defines policy guidelines and strategic planning, and the conceptual framework for their effective management, constitution and adequate operation, by formulating measures for the conservation of priority ecosystems. Current regulations require the Master Plan to be updated every 10 years; the most recent version was adopted in 2009.

Data from SINANPE reveal a sustained increase in permanent protected natural areas, of which there were 40 in 2003 and 64 by late 2013. These areas cover 16.6 million ha, equivalent to 16.9% of national territory. According to MINAM data, at end-2013 there were 10 protected marine areas, 15 conservation areas administered by regional governments, and 69 private conservation areas. The latter have been the fastest-growing (MINAM, 2014c). Management of the areas has been improved, as shown by the fact that in 2003 only 33 had staff assigned and 17 were governed by management master plans, compared to 61 and 41, respectively, in 2015. Nonetheless, of the 21 terrestrial ecoregions identified in Peru’s ecoregions map (Mapa de ecorregiones del Perú), only 12 are protected natural areas, and the provisions of the respective master plans do not ensure the governance needed for their sustainable use.

Under current regulations, natural resources can be exploited, either directly or indirectly, in protected areas classified accordingly. In areas of direct exploitation, use or extraction is allowed, particularly by the local population, in the zones indicated in the respective management plan, which also lists the exploitable resources. Any other uses and activities undertaken must be compatible with the objectives of the area. In the second case (indirect use), scientific research without manipulation is authorised, along with recreational and tourism uses in zones designated and managed for those purposes. The removal of natural resources and changes to the natural environment are prohibited in these areas.3

Recently, the Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic analysed the performance of services involving participatory management and control and surveillance of the protected areas. The study found that the actions envisaged were only partially implemented, and that methods to identify actors and monitoring were applied on a discretionary basis. It also found that the coverage of the control areas was insufficient, and that there were inadequate resources (park rangers, control posts and communication equipment) for routine patrols. Although activities to record biological data are carried out in most of these areas, this does not amount to the monitoring of biological diversity, strictly speaking; and priority research needs to be promoted more forcefully (Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic, 2014).

Peru is currently ranked as the third most preferred ecotourism destination in Latin America, following Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands (Drumm and Moore, 2002). Recent years have seen a sustained increase in this type of tourism, which can benefit the sustainable use and valuation of biological diversity. In 2013, over 1.3 million people visited the SINANPE protected areas. Outside these, the vast majority of ecosystems and landscapes —Andean, Amazonian and coastal marine— also have huge and largely unexploited potential.

Management of species and genetic resources

The Regulation governing Access to Genetic Resources (Supreme Decree 003-2009-MINAM) specifies the conditions and mechanisms for exercising user rights, which are complemented with the provisions of the Intellectual Property Rights Act. These instruments authorise the signing of contracts enabling access for commercial and other purposes, framework access contracts, and agreements for the transfer of materials by foreign conservation centres. Thus far, only 11 access contracts have been signed, all of which relate to terrestrial genetic resources, in other words none concern marine species or continental waters.

Law No. 29811 has imposed a 10-year moratorium (2012-2021) on the production and entry into national territory of live genetically modified organisms. Its main purpose is to avoid the potential risk of transgenic contamination of the rich genetic diversity heritage of Peru, which is considered one of the main territories of origin and domestication of many food species and species of other types.

The Agrobiodiversity Technical Group, which supports CONADIB and is co-ordinated by the National Institute of Agrarian Innovation (INIA), updates the list of domesticated species and identifies their areas of origin and diversification. The group played an active role in promulgating Supreme Decree 020-2016-MINAGRI, which approved the regulation formally recognising Agrobiodiversity Zones. The construction of a platform for recognising the economic value of domesticated species and genetic resources, to ensure their sustainable use, is currently at the final stage. Thanks to the country’s cultural heritage and originating peoples, Peru has domesticated five species of wild fauna and 182 plant species (Brack, 2003). In addition, national gastronomy has boomed in the last decade, as several Peruvian celebrity chefs have started to make commercial use of native species, with great success, and this has fuelled beneficial demand for agrobiodiversity.

In general terms, the heterogeneity of Peru’s agriculture sector, and its geographic and climate diversity, pose major challenges that need to be addressed through policies on agrobiodiversity.

Forestry and wildlife management

The forestry sector displays productive development well below its potential, both in terms of land area and in terms of biological diversity. Owing to this sector’s low level of industrialisation and scant value-added, Peru is a net importer of forestry products. The land area devoted to commercial plantations is still very small, and less than half of all timber forests are operated under concession.

Box 9.3. Diversity of native potato species

The potato, which originates and was first domesticated in the Andean mountains, is the world’s third most important food species, after rice and wheat. Over 4 000 varieties of native potato are recognised; and there are 151 species of wild potatoes that are naturally resistant to pests, diseases and adverse climate conditions (International Potato Centre).

Peru has the world’s second-largest agricultural area sown with potatoes, accounting for 8.8% of the total (Fourth National Agricultural Census, 2012). Roughly 96% of this area is in the highlands region, where the crop is the staple food of its inhabitants. Potato production in 19 of Peru’s 24 departments involved 600 000 small farms; it is the main income source for Andean producers, and generates over 110 000 jobs.

Native potatoes offer multiple benefits in terms of consumption and sale: the income stability permitted by the sowing of multiple varieties as a strategy to guard against climate events, pests or diseases, that vary from one year to another, along with the food provided at different times of the year, in which farmers combine early varieties (“chauchas” and improved) with late varieties, thereby contributing to the economic well-being of potato-cropping families.

Production conditions vary, both in terms of productivity and in crop yields and production zones. In Chugay, growers still maintain the tradition of ploughing with oxen on flat land or gentle slopes. This practice is applied in 80% of potato fields, and the farmers of the zone make preferential use of organic fertilisers to control pests and diseases.

Potato production increased sharply in 2001-2013, with average annual growth of 2.6%. The cultivation of all varieties has been promoted by specific government policies, but greater attention should also be paid to the depletion of soils used for sowing and the use of fertilisers. Since 2008, which was declared the International Year of the Potato, numerous studies have been published, which include classifications of the native potato varieties and information on their morphology, agronomic characteristics, nutritional value and culinary uses. This information, which is included in the national register, can serve as a reference to monitor the conservation status of the crops and study potential new attributes or crop varieties.

Source: Prepared by the author on the basis of CGSpace, “Catalog of ancestral potato varieties from Chugay, La Libertad – Peru” [online] and INEI (2013), IV Censo Nacional Agropecuario 2012. Resultados definitivos.

The sustainable use and conservation of forestry resources and wild fauna are governed by the Forestry and Wild Fauna Act (Law No. 27 308) and respective regulations. Use permits are issued on a decentralised basis by the respective regional authorities. One of the main commercial activities linked to forestry ecosystems is timber extraction, the current benefits of which are considered well below their estimated potential. For this reason, the Government has proposed a comprehensive reform of the current legal framework, to strengthen the capacity of public institutions and civil society for the conservation and sustainable use of forests. This is expected to involve management practices based on an ecosystemic approach, together with management modalities that consider cultural diversity and promote active participation by indigenous peoples and local populations. In this domain, there are very positive examples of certified forestry concessions and community forestry operations that satisfy the conditions needed to contribute to the sustainability of Amazonian forests (Cordero, 2012).

Measures of exploitation of hydrobiological resources

Fishing is one of the key economic activities in Peru, and the most important in terms of the exploitation of wild species. This has led to the adoption of fishery management measures aimed at improving control and sustainable management of the sector, in accordance with the Fisheries Management Regulation (Chapter 11). To that end, related legal instruments have been designed such as the National Plan of Action for conservation and Management of Sharks, Rays and Related Species in Peru (Plan Tiburón Perú), and the Plan of Action for the Conservation of Coastal Marine Biodiversity (Chapter 5).

The very few taxonomies that exist of Peru’s marine fauna and flora show large knowledge gaps; and, although data compilation has helped, it is not a sustained process.

There are 10 protected natural areas in marine and coastal zones, including the recently created National Reserve System of Islands, Islets and Guano Capes (RNSIIPG), consisting of 22 islands and 11 guano capes. This reserve is home to a large number of endemic species and allows for the protection of fish spawning zones, bird nesting, reproduction of marine mammals and refuge for many other species. The creation of this reserve is highly beneficial for the conservation of biodiversity and also for the fishery sector (MINAM, 2014c).

The extraction of hydrobiological resources in continental waters, fishing in the Amazon zone, in rivers and lakes, and aquaculture activity in protected areas are all regulated by the General Fisheries Act (Law No. 25977). Aquaculture must also abide by regulations on category, objectives of creation and zoning, and the corresponding master plan. Moreover, Supreme Decree 016-2009-MINAM requires the use of hydrobiological resources to be specified in the Fisheries Management Programmes (MAPEs), which have precautionary status, and respond to a socioeconomic need that justifies the extractive activity, either for commercial purposes or for subsistence. The operations are monitored in co-ordination with the Regional Fishery Directorates (DIREPE) and the respective administrative entity.

The Standing Committee of the South Pacific is currently evaluating the effects of pollution on marine biodiversity and the risks this represents for human health, as part of the Action Plan for Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas of the South-East Pacific. These evaluations are being co-ordinated with the Institute of the Sea of Peru (IMARPE) (MINAM, 2014c).

Land management

Land management is an important environmental policy tool, in which the MINAM General Directorate of Land Management (DGOT) is responsible for promoting balanced management based on orderly occupation and sustainable use of natural resources, in accordance with the natural, social and economic potential of the different zones of the country. The Directorate also offers guidance and assistance to regional and local governments in relation to land management processes, through technical instruments such as ecological and economic zoning, specialised studies, the comprehensive diagnostic assessment of the territory and territorial management plan. In some areas, ecological and economic zoning is required to authorise land-use change (DGOT/MINAM, 2014). The MINAM geoserver, which is freely accessible to all interested persons, is an important technical mechanism for the dissemination and exchange of geospatial information and information on the territorial and environmental situation of the country, which enables the downloading of images and consultation of specialised maps and reports, among other functions.

Recently, the stages of design, data collection and structuring of basic information for territorial management were concluded, with little progress having been made. It is illustrative that 46% of deforestation occurs in areas that are not regulated in any way (Chapter 10).

In recent years, investment promotion laws have been passed governing different aspects of the granting of permits for undertaking production activities under the National Environmental Impact Assessment System (SEIA). Under Laws Nos. 30230, of July 2014, and 30327, of May 2015, simplified permit mechanisms were established, and the sanctions imposed by the Agency for Environmental Assessment and Enforcement (OEFA) were relaxed. In particular, Law No. 30230 stipulates that the Council of Ministers will assume the functions of declaring reserve zones, formulation of the national policy on land management, and adoption of environmental quality standards (EQS) and maximum permissible limits (MPL). The functions were previously performed by MINAM. It is also clarified that “neither economic-ecological zoning nor land management assign uses or use exclusions,” thereby reaffirming their indicative nature.

2.3. Economic instruments

The economic instruments currently in force, or in process, include those relating to the payment for ecosystem environmental services, which includes direct conditional transfers for forest conservation made by the Fund for the Promotion of Protected Natural Areas of Peru (PROFONANPE). In June 2014, the Ecosystemic Services Payment Mechanisms Act (Law No. 30215) was passed, which provides for the conditional payment to contributors to these systems for undertaking of activities of conservation, recuperation and sustainable use of their sources. The activities in question can include the conservation of natural spaces, recovery of areas that have suffered deterioration or environmental degradation, and the conversion of sources of ecosystemic services to a sustainable use. This Act defines the payer as “the natural person or legal entity, public or private, who, obtaining an economic, social or environmental benefit, pays taxpayers for the ecosystemic service.” The State is explicitly tasked with promoting payment mechanisms and designing a system for monitoring compliance with the law. Nonetheless, the implementation of the relevant activities has to be financed “out of the institutional budget of the entities involved, without requiring additional resources from the public purse.”

2.4. Expense and financing

The Peruvian Treasury provides most of the financing for institutional development and the implementation of policies for the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. The remaining funds come from the private sector, international co-operation and payment for ecosystemic services. The sustainable conservation and use of biodiversity and natural resources had the second largest allocation of funds for public environmental expenditure in 2002-2012 (USD 946.6 million), followed by the integrated and sustainable management of ecosystems (USD 531.0 million) (MINAM, 2015). Nonetheless, owing to budgetary constraints, few public funds have been allocated to the protection of protected natural areas. An analysis of the contribution these areas make to Peru’s economy (León, 2007) stresses the need to invest more in them; so, as from 2009, the allocation of public funds to SINANPE was increased under a financial plan that involves various sources of financing and the monitoring of its management results. In 2009-2013, funds assigned to SERNANP were increased considerably, from USD 2 216.8 to USD 14 004.6 (Sanclemente, Ruiz and Pedraza, 2014).

2.5. Scientific research

Investment in scientific and technological studies on natural resources has also been increasing, reaching a level of PEN 61.3 million in 2013 —a relatively large sum compared to environmental public spending in 2012. Several specialised institutions, including the National Council for Science, Technology and Technological Innovation (CONCYTEC), have conducted basic and applied scientific research on biodiversity (MINAM, 2014c).

In November 2013, CONCYTEC relaunched the process of formulating the National Crosscutting Programme of Science, Technology and Technological Innovation for the Valuation of Biodiversity, 2015-2021. To that end, institutions which undertake related activities were convened, and a Formulation Technical Committee was set up, consisting of specialists drawn from academic and government institutions, and international co-operation. Although few in number compared to indexed scientific publications from other South American countries, particularly Brazil, the number of scientific studies conducted in Peru has increased, and those related to biodiversity represent roughly 30% of the total. Of the 5 344 articles published between 2011 and 2014 and included in the Scopus database, 1 514 are devoted to this topic (CONCYTEC, 2015).


Brack, A. (2003), Perú: diez mil años de domesticación, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

CAF (Development Bank of Latin America) (2015), Biocomercio andino. Principales avances, lecciones aprendidas y retos futuros para la región, Lima.

(2014), Biocomercio andino: quince historias de éxito en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, Lima.

CAF/PROMPERU (Development Bank of Latin America/Commission for the Promotion of Peruvian Exports and Tourism) (2014), Sistematización del proyecto Biocomercio Andino Perú [online]

Chair of the Council of Ministers of Peru (2013), Perú. Tercer Informe nacional de cumplimiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, Lima.

CIFOR (Center for International Forestry Research) (2013), “Contexto de REDD+ en Perú, motores, actores e instituciones”, Documentos Ocasionales, No. 90 [online]

CONCYTEC (National Council for Science, Technology and Technological lnnovation) (2015), Programa Nacional Transversal de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica de Valoración de la Biodiversidad, 2015 – 2021 [online]

Cordero, D. (2012), Una mirada integral a los bosques del Perú, Quito, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Dascal, G. (2012), “La vulnerabilidad de las tierras desertificadas frente a escenarios de cambio climático en América Latina y el Caribe”, Project Documents (LC/W.496), Santiago, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

Departament of San Martín (2009), “Estudio de viabilidad económica del cultivo de Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, ‘Sacha Inchi’”, Avances Económicos, No. 3, Iquitos.

DGOT/MINAM (Directorate-General for Land Use/Ministry of Environment) (2014), Orientaciones básicas sobre el ordenamiento territorial en el Perú, Lima.

Dinerstein, E. and other (1995), A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean, Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Drumm, A. and A. Moore (2002), Ecotourism Development – A Manual Series for Conservation Planners and Managers, volume 1: An Introduction to Ecotourism Planning, Arlington, The Nature Conservancy.

Herzog, S. et al.  (eds.) (2011), Cambio climático y biodiversidad en los Andes Tropicales, Inter American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI)/Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE).

INEI (National Institute of Statistics and Informatics) (2008), “Censos nacionales de población y vivienda, 1981, 1993, 2007”, Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú 2007, Lima.

León, F. (2007), El aporte de las áreas naturales protegidas a la economía nacional [online]$FILE/libro_aporte_anp_eco_nac.pdf.

MINAM (Ministry of Environment) (2016a), “Actualización de la lista de clasificación y categorización de las especies amenazadas de fauna silvestre”, Lima, unpublished.

(2016b), Estrategia Nacional sobre Bosques y Cambio Climático, Lima [online]

(2015a), Caracterización y cuantificación del gasto público ambiental peruano, Lima.

(2015b), Mapa nacional de cobertura vegetal. Memoria descriptiva, Lima.

(2014a), Estrategia Nacional de Diversidad Biológica al 2021. Plan de Acción 2014-2018 [online]

(2014b), Informe Nacional del Estado del Ambiente, 2012-2013 [online]

(2014c), Quinto Informe Nacional ante el Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica: Perú 2010-2013 [online]

(2014d), Primer Informe Bienal de Actualización del Perú a la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático, Lima.

(2012), La desertificación en el Perú. Cuarta Comunicación Nacional del Perú a la Convención de Lucha contra la Desertificación y la Sequía [online]

(2011), “Mapa del patrimonio forestal nacional” [online]

(2010), Segunda Comunicación Nacional del Perú a la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático, Lima.

(2009), “Plan Director de Áreas Naturales Protegidas. Decreto Supremo Nº 016-2009” [online]

MINCETUR (Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism of Peru) (n/d) “Sacha Inchi”, Biocomercio Andino [online]

(2014a), “Ministra Magali Silva: ‘Proyecto Biocomercio Andino en Perú promovió más de 20 cadenas de exportación’” [online]

(2014b), Biocomercio: modelo de negocio sostenible, Commission for the Promotion of Peruvian Exports and Tourism (PROMPERÚ) [online]

Neyra Palomino, A.F. (2015), Orientaciones básicas sobre el ordenamiento territorial en el Perú, Lima Directorate-General for Land Use (DGOT).

Ocean Health Index (2015), “Annual Scores and Rankings” [online]

Office of the Comptroller-General of the Republic of Peru (2014), Auditoría de desempeño a los servicios de gestión participativa y de control y vigilancia en áreas naturales protegidas de administración nacional [online]

ONERN (National Office for Natural Resource Evaluation ) (1976), Mapa ecológico del Perú, Lima.

Pulgar Vidal, J. (1981), Mapa de la regiones naturales del Perú, Lima, National Office for Natural Resource Evaluation (ONERN).

Sanclemente, G., L. Ruiz and N. Pedraza (2014), Contribución del sector privado a las áreas protegidas: estudios en Colombia y Perú, M. Ríos and A. Mora (eds.), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)/Environment Canada/ECOVERSA [online]


← 1. The marine trophic index, mentioned in the Convention on Biological Diversity, contains information on fish catches and the average trophic level of the species brought to land.

← 2. Protected Natural Areas Act (Law 26.834).

← 3. For further information, see [online]