Action plan

Chapter 2: Continuing structural transformation of the economy

In order to achieve the status of an emergent economy, the country needs to modernise its structures so as to promote greater job creation potential. Industry and services play an important role in the economy but most Ivorians still work in agriculture, a sector which is not growing very fast. The country needs to move towards industrial activities that generate more jobs and more added value, such as more sophisticated goods, and also use the services sector better by bringing it into the formal economy and rendering it more professional.

Structural transformation will depend on how locally and internationally competitive the economy is. Becoming more competitive will require a good investment climate for the private sector and recognised quality standards. Vigorous competition between stakeholders and in all private and public markets is essential. Streamlined trade procedures are vital to help the country join global value chains and reach markets. An emergent Ivorian economy must also make the most of its land and see that all parts of the country benefit.

Expected result

What? (Recommendations)


How? (Actions)


Country models

Diversified and industrialised economy

Efficient agriculture drives growth (ER 1)

Improve strategic planning (1)

Agriculture lacks inputs and skills, keeping productivity low

More money for national agricultural investment programme (PNIA):

  • Aim for 10% of national budget (target decided at Maputo Conference).

  • Fund PNIA over 10 years.

Cabinet / Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Budget Anader

Supply quality inputs (2)

Develop controlled distribution chains (see experimental rice project).

Set up integrated agency to ensure quality agricultural inputs and their distribution.

Regularly check quality of inputs at sales-points:

  • Set up quality-control unit.

  • Count and classify sales-points (by size and importance) and products (by growth potential: cash crops and subsistence crops).

  • Draft plan for risk estimates: which products and businesses to be monitored.

  • Make visits, take samples of products sold and assess their quality.

  • Set up administrative framework to ensure compliance (penalties).

Set up unit in quality-control bodies(DPQN) or Anader

Nigeria: National Agricultural Seeds Council

Morocco: Seed and Plant Inspection Service

Supply quality services (3)

Encourage accessible agricultural services in the provinces:

  • Continue the study of Anader’s services and ways to reform them.

  • Expand the scope of this study to include other key agricultural service suppliers.

  • Discuss with various parties the advantages of combining pre-production and post-harvest services.

  • Make information more available, using special mobile-phone apps.

  • Offer services near big shops; concentrate them in one major place.

Ministry of Agriculture, Anader

Support services growth by sector:

  • Support interprofessional training.

  • Build other sectors on the model of rubber.

Develop policies and measures encouraging more use of modern agricultural techniques and mechanisation.

High-potential agro-industries drive growth (ER2)

Expand processing of raw materials, especially in key sectors (4)

Agricultural processing does not fully contribute to diversification

Boost productivity of agricultural items through cross-sector reforms:

  • Invest more in integrated distribution chains, including storage (see Ministry of Agriculture project above for controlled distribution chains [recommendation 2, Supply quality inputs]).

  • Upgrade packaging, storage and quality control.

  • Make seaports more competitive to increase exports.

  • Continue efforts to restore the “Made in Côte d’Ivoire” brand (security, repairing infrastructure, potential of the recent recovery) to make the country more attractive for visitors and tourists.

Ministry of Agriculture

Agroparks: see Malaysia model


  • Attract major rice-processing firms.

  • Continue allotting suburban land to encourage growth of SMEs nationwide (see Phoenix Plan).

  • Create a brand-label and improve brand-image.

Palm oil

  • Introduce a plan to increase palm oil output.

  • Undertake a survey of farmers (or analyse existing data) to identify differences in productivity as well as key factors and constraints among small farmers.

  • Expand production and productivity of farmers.

  • Develop specialised agro-parks (agricultural clusters focused on rubber products) to speed up diversification with further processing.

  • Improve post-harvest logistics and storage.

Cashew nuts

  • Investigate sector constraints and how to get Ivorian firms more involved (using the Phoenix Plan and “national champions” system).

  • Continue working with processing countries by focusing on access to markets and new technology (discussions with Vietnam, Malaysia and India).

  • Attract major processing firms.

  • Increase Côte d’Ivoire’s visibility in key markets.

  • Consider setting up agricultural clusters based on cashews.

Cashew nuts cluster: see India model


  • Target intermediate processing.

  • Continue the 2QC programme.

  • Build a “Made in Côte d’Ivoire” cocoa brand (see below).


  • Undertake a survey to identify where in the value chain Côte d’Ivoire has a potential advantage and the possibility of reorganising some factories.

  • Investigate with firms what obstacles they face in expanding cotton processing (availability of inputs, such as machinery, water, electricity), using the Phoenix Plan strategy.


  • Put together a public-private partnership (PPP) with major distributors (such as Nestlé).

  • Develop a “Made in Côte d’Ivoire” label.


  • Increase industrial processing for export.

  • Encourage creation of integrated industrial infrastructure near major production areas.


  • Structure this sector like the palm oil, coffee and cocoa sectors.

Industry diversified and creating jobs (ER 3)

Make industrial base more diverse (5)

Industry still has few products and firms

See how competitive labour costs are:

  • Amend the investment law to add a “job creation” condition.

  • Consider experimenting with flexible working practices (make minimum wage more flexible) in specialised industrial zones.

Construction products (cement, ceramics, etc.)

  • Continue building two new cement plants.

  • Improve transport network and support growth of provincial markets (exports to neighbouring states) to make economies of scale.

  • Undertake a feasibility study for an aggregates plant for certain products and for grouping together construction, metalworking and chemical activities.

  • Make raw-material imports quicker and cheaper (customs duties).

Ministry of Industry Others: CGECI, Ministry of Economy and Finance

Aggregate production: see Burundi project

Ethiopia: textile and leather sectors

Mauritius: fast-track cargo initiative

Chemicals, pharmaceuticals

  • Make it easier for SMEs to order inputs by setting up a network or “joint ordering” exchange.

  • Set up fast-track import procedures for known importers (formerly known as “circuit blanc” system).

  • Support development of a sub-regional quality label (“Made in Côte d’Ivoire”).

  • Attract a big international firm to manufacture medicines ensuring means of ready access of products for sub-regional markets.


  • Expand packaging services.

  • Publicise benefits of better quality packaging with SMEs, preferably through the new one-stop shop for SMEs (Anpme).

  • Consider funding for firms wanting to upgrade their processes.

  • Support setting up packaging facilities near production areas.

  • Open a technical centre for packaging or provide special training.


Identify global value chains with opportunities related to Côte d’Ivoire’s comparative advantages and to market structures.

For the manufacturing sector, target integration into global value chains through assembly activity:

  • Identify firms serving regional markets for assembled products (household appliances, farm machinery).

  • Use links with innovation strategy to adapt products to local needs.

  • Encourage assembly in one of the new industrial zones (administrative support, perhaps review minimum wage for the zones, easier administrative procedures).

  • Streamline exports (set up fast-track procedures for a limited time).

Use these flagship projects in a communication and marketing strategy to attract more firms.

China: Haier produces washing-machines with functions adapted to different Chinese markets.

Start strategic dialogue with private sector (6)

Co-operation with private sector does not greatly help strategic planning

Start systematic consultations to identify industrial diversification opportunities (chemicals, pharmaceuticals, assembly) guided by OECD suggestions.

  • Circulate the OECD report, Examen multidimensionnel de la Côte d’Ivoire to business owners and ask them to evaluate the potential for the ideas in their sector.

  • Target between three and five more specific sectors or activities, set up working-groups with business-owners already in similar or related activities to ensure everyone’s interests are taken into account.

  • Within these groups, identify market potential, required inputs, legal frameworks (business climate, regulation, public property), and possible snags and see how the government could respond (undertaking a more technical survey, if necessary).

  • Draft action plans for surmounting obstacles to development of some sectors and activities.

  • Present the results to the CCESP and decide how the government could implement the action plans.



Economic Management Team

OECD policy discussion of global value chains and its Productive Transformation Policy Review

Industry has access to good production infrastructure (ER 4)

Improve management and allocation of industrial land (7)

Manufacturing has poor access to scarce industrial land

Harmonise allocation procedures:

  • Simplify application procedures (number of documents).

  • Set up an e-portal to computerise applications and make the system more transparent (criteria and handling times).

  • Monitor operations to shorten delays and ensure legal compliance.

Improve fee collection to fund investment:

  • Set up a special unit in the DGI to deal better with FODI’s needs.

  • Undertake a survey of firms situated in industrial zones as soon as possible.

  • Draft a plan for a medium-term transfer of fee collection to FODI to increase its independence and ability to react.

Ministry of Industry and Mines



Continue developing new industrial zones (8)

Consider medium-term privatisation of existing zones to make them more efficient (involving several private partners for different zones to boost competition).

Assess potential for setting up specialised agro-industrial free zones:

  • Continue pre-feasibility studies.

  • Evaluate and choose funding models (BOO, BOT etc.) and operation models (various complexes, agro-industrial parks, free zones).

Ministry of Industry and Mines



Mining drives growth (ER 5)

Increase extraction of natural resources (9)

The country does not make the most of its natural resources

Speed up onshore and offshore oil, gas and mineral exploration.

  • Improve conditions for investors in the sector.

  • Ensure a supportive legal framework for exploration and extraction.

  • Ensure transparent and efficient management of government revenue from natural resources (timely publication of EITI reports, planning long-term investment).

  • Encourage processing of natural resources (see development of SMEs, processing activity).

Expand and diversify mining sector (10)

Mining still contributes little to economic growth

Continue the Grand-ouest project:

  • Undertake feasibility study and continue planning.

  • Design communication strategy (supporting transparency and attracting firms).

  • Encourage integrated planning of investment and needs (for example mineral processing for 2017-18, starting up new power plants) and offer investors adapted and transparent planning.

  • Provide transparent and reliable project management (planning, timely execution, good government communication, public tendering).

  • Rationalise artisanal mining and upgrade SME involvement.

  • Support training

  • Encourage unpaid student internships with big firms.

Ministry of Industry and Mines

Chile: world supplier of BHP and CODELCO

Mozambique (MOZAL project)

Ghana: Enterprise Map

Policy dialogue with OECD about creation of local added value

Continue transparency about income from natural resources:

  • Speed up publication of EITI reports.

  • Devise transparency strategy for communication with civil society and increase government accountability.

Encourage local suppliers (11)

  • Compile directories of local suppliers and capacity to help multinational firms choose local partners.

  • Work with private sector and vocational institutions to develop adapted training.

Services sector helps modernise economy (ER 6)

Highlight key and priority services for development strategy (12)

The role of services for industry is insufficiently developed.

Carry out a survey of the services sector to identify services which are a driving force, key factors in productive firms and their potential to contribute as intermediaries to the modernisation of the economy.

CCESP or economic management team

Digital economy

  • Set aside places with good ITC access to support communication and interaction (buildings with good internet and phone connection in cities and industrial zones).

  • Set up communication centres for business entrepreneurs and university graduates to foster growth of new ideas (mentoring programmes).


  • Launch marketing campaign to improve Côte d’Ivoire’s image (security etc.) and use potential of eco-tourism.

  • Build on local tourism to upgrade services (hotels and restaurants) especially in established sites (Assinie, etc.).

  • Continue improving and developing tourist sites.

  • Undertake feasibility studies to find niche potential to attract foreign tourists (cocoa production, natural parks).

ITC areas and incubators: co-working houses in Europe, Orange FAB scheme to help SME start-ups

Tourism campaign: see Colombia model

Transport and logistics

  • Provide easier access to ITC for planning and modernising (especially road) transport.

  • Support innovation-driven development based on geolocation (e-commerce).

  • Monitor transport interconnection (sea, road, river, urban).

  • Ensure key skills are available (logistics courses, support for those wanting to study further abroad).

  • Support partnerships between national haulage companies and international forms for the transfer of skills.

  • Continue expanding refrigerated chains (and adequate storage) for perishable goods.

China: logistics centres and regional hubs


  • Facilitate access to ITC and its use in planning and modernising wholesale and retail services in order to upgrade daily operations and storage (inventories).

  • Encourage acceptance of quality standards to diversify range of businesses (hypermarkets, supermarkets, small groceries with a variety of products).

  • Consider potential of mobile commerce (m-commerce), support relevant activities (development of m-commerce platforms for buying goods and services) and integrate with postal services and distribution/logistics.

  • Start private-public discussions with big chain-stores (supermarkets and food distributors) about best way to work with local suppliers.

SMEs are vibrant base of economy(ER 7)

Make paperwork for SMEs easier with one-stop shop for information (13)

SMEs have trouble accessing support services

Setting up the national SME development agency (ANPME) involves:

  • Assigning management of this project to a strong and visible agency that will compile a directory of agencies and documents to support existing SMEs and harmonise legal framework in long term (merging existing bodies or creating new co-ordination agency).

  • Merging some institutions or abolishing others not working well in the medium term.

  • Including the subcontracting and partnership exchange in this network.

  • Set up website with documents and links to relevant agencies and bodies (business permits, exports, taxation, training, outsourcing).

  • Make new agency and its website visible in business community, perhaps through other media (advertising, radio, TV, text-messages).

Ministry of SMEs, National SME Development Agency (being set up)

Other relevant bodies: BSTP, FDFP, Apex-CI, MCF-PME, CNCGA, FDFP, FARE-PME, CGA, CDT, INIE

Malaysia’s Small and Medium Enterprise Corporation Malaysia, Thailand’s Office of SMEs Promotion (OSMEP).

  • Review and update existing documents to respond to the needs of business people, by providing information in step-by-step manuals, guides and checklists. Encourage and help other bodies to communicate this way.

Help private sector find way to pool cost of services (14)

  • Create legal framework and pilot scheme for pooling basic accountancy and auditing services, similar to co-op (mutual with members).

Ministry of Commerce ANPME

Pooling examples: Germany, United States

Devise strategy to support high-potential SMEs (15)

  • Implement policies to support SMEs and quality services (through the Phoenix Plan).

Innovation creates value (ER 8)

Encourage innovation adapted to emergence (16)

Country lacks strategic planning to develop innovation potential.

Launch national innovation strategy, which requires:

  • Proper legal support for innovation (intellectual property law).

  • More research into agricultural innovation and agro-technology.

  • Greater co-ordination with private sector to ensure effective and relevant policies.

  • Exchange of researchers between local and foreign institutions, public and private sectors.

  • Using comparative advantages of developing countries (market knowledge and regional needs) to find unexplored areas of innovation.

  • Strengthening research and development centres, perhaps setting up top-level new centres to attract large international firms.

CNRA, universities, private sector


Côte d’Ivoire is nationally and internationally competitive

Encouraging investment climate for the private sector (ER 9)

Ensure legal security for investors (17)

Legal framework is sometimes obstacle for investors

Monitor national and international competitiveness to try to improve it:

  • Continue reforms to create better investment climate (Doing Business, World Economic Forum).

  • Ensure key goals are met, without focusing solely on Doing Business indicators.

HITOREZ project in Croatia, which updated hundreds of laws

Strengthen legal framework

  • Support work of courts and envisage appeals to international bodies (International Court of Arbitration) to strengthen legal situation.

  • Make investment-related laws simpler and more transparent.

  • Continue setting up national good governance authority and envisage including an observatory to receive and analyse complaints from firms.

Help investors set up operations (18)

  • Improve assistance to large firms (for example, getting residence permits and other procedures for expatriate employees).

  • Simplify taxation and make it more transparent for large firms (offsetting fewer exemptions with simpler and more transparent overall tax burden).


Anpme, ministries

Quality standards recognised (ER 10)

Strengthen infrastructure and institutions for quality standards (19)

Poor quality products limit access to markets

  • Complete quality strategy under way in some value chains (coffee-cocoa, cashews, bananas) by developing geographical origin and quality labels.

  • Harmonise and speed up accreditation for testing laboratories.

  • Review institutional framework and study possible system to inspect agri-food and pharmaceuticals and strengthen national standards body (CODINORM) for inspecting electrical goods and packaging.

  • Extend standards to other products and services.

  • Publicise requirements and advantages of certification (especially for SMEs) through professional associations (FIPME, workshops, brochures, technical support and advice, special units in DPQN for SMEs).

  • Set up programme to track agricultural products.

Ministry of Commerce, DPQN

Structural model based on two pillars: see examples of the FDA in the United States, and in Ghana and Nigeria

Robust competition ensures economic growth (ER 11)

Strengthen competition regulation bodies (20)

Ivorian economy not very competitive

  • Determine best and most efficient structure for competition regulation bodies in line with WAEMU rules.

  • Get new competition commission going as soon as possible under WAEMU rules.

  • Guarantee new commission’s official and budgetary independence, especially in hiring staff.

  • Increase its budget.

Ministry of Trade, competition commissions, offices of prime minister and president

New Zealand, Greece, Tanzania

Easier trade (ER 12)

Rise up value-chains (21)

SMEs take little part in trade

  • Adopt new international marketing policy with “Made in Côte d’Ivoire” label.

  • Help search for export markets through one-stop shop (see Recommendation 15 about SME capacity) and publicise quality standards and non-tariff barriers existing in export destinations.

Ministry of Commerce Ministry of Agriculture

Improve and speed up passage through scanner at Abidjan port (PAA) (22)

Many obstacles slow down trade, especially in Abidjan port

  • Continue upgrading risk assessment system.

  • Increase capacity of customs (DGD) to process documents for passing through scanner.

  • Consider reviving (after agreement) a fast-track arrangement for selected firms to pass quicker through the port with simpler procedures.

Office of Prime Minister/President

Fast-track model: Mauritius

  • Continue programme to speed up port handling (see infrastructure chapter), especially through survey of all stakeholders by independent body.

Make customs more efficient (23)

  • Continue rigorous on-the-job training of new customs staff.

  • Increase regulation and surveillance of public services and assess their quality.

Ministry of Budget (DGD)

Continue regional integration (24)

Sub-regional co-operation insufficient

  • Continue faster setting up of adjacent frontier posts and interconnection of services.

  • Use economic diplomacy to speed up support programmes (APE, PAPED, TEC) and trade infrastructure.

  • Increase free circulation of people and firms (setting up operations) to support regional integration.

Ministry of Budget (DGD), Ministry of African Integration

Economic potential of land fulfilled (ER 13)

Set up national land capitalisation programme (25)

Land titles and use of rural land are very unreliable.

Make land a national priority with national urban and rural surveying programme:

  • Help local stakeholders, especially village committees in the management of rural property (CVGFR), and see they are involved.

  • Continue project to survey rural land:

    1. – Ensure good planning and management with steering committee open to all (relevant ministries, farmer associations, regional agricultural offices [DRA, DDA], local chiefs / CVGFR).

    2. – Consider setting up top-level committee and local ones with bigger voice for local stakeholders.

    3. – Create machinery to settle land disputes to make transactions easier.

    4. – Continue project by choosing experimental and priority regions.

  • Set up interactive public land database, especially for urban land.

  • Reform procedures for individuals seeking land titles to include surveying fees in sales contract (instead of paying this fee before preparation of the contract).

Ethiopia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Viet Nam (see reports 1 and 2 of Multidimentional Review of Côte d’Ivoire)

Encourage long-term investment in agriculture with new land laws (26)

  • Develop flexible, quick and secure legal management.

Economic development benefits all regions (ER 14)

Draft nationwide development strategy (27)

National development very focused on Abidjan.

  • Continue and speed up economic growth centres project.

  • Launch steering committee and involve external consultants (combined with local capacity, CAPEC) for the strategic management of land development to ensure objectivity about the potential of different regions.

  • Decide basic goals and ways of assessing regional potential (identifying regional and village-level economic possibilities, role of services, examining multi-level decentralisation and governance).

  • Support regional authorities in expanding capacity (training individuals).

  • Co-ordinate operations between ministries (transport, economic infrastructure, MPITC, MEMPD, CI Energy, Ministry of Oil and Energy) by finding suitable level of co-ordination between civil servants

  • Continue assessing potential for geolocation to organise addresses (especially in Abidjan) to provide greater access to services, based on existing surveys (SDUGA).

MEMPD, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Mines, and Trade.

Example: geolocation with Addressing the Unaddressed in India

Chapter 3: Expand infrastructure to support emergence

Not all Ivorians have access yet to key infrastructure (electricity, transport, telecommunications), which hampers economic growth and development. The government has ambitious plans to invest in infrastructure, much of it with the private sector through public-private partnerships (PPP). The quality and efficiency of this investment must be given greater priority so infrastructure can sustainably support long-term development. Good governance that encourages best practices, such as transparency in project-preparation, solid public finances and competitive tendering, is vital for creating and using good and efficient infrastructure.

Expected result

What? (Recommendations)


How? (Actions)


Country models

Easier access to essential infrastructure for emergence (ER 1)

Expand capacity of public and private stakeholders (including PPP) to prepare and carry out infrastructure projects (1)

Infrastructure and PPP are the centre of Ivorian economic development strategy and need good-quality assessment

  • Reduce dispersion of roles and practices in infrastructure development by bringing together skills needed for design, preparation and management of projects, and strengthen means of preparation and application.

  • Train staff in financial and legal management aspects of PPPs.

  • Increase capacity of private parties (consultants, accountants and legal advisors) and public ones (BNETD, Ageroute) through training, especially in forecasting.

  • Supply tools and document models to guide project preparation, speed up implementation and ensure they are under well understood.

  • Set up project development fund to finance feasibility studies.

  • Encourage local firms (including PPPs) to take part in infrastructure projects.



Draft energy policy to encourage more investment in renewable energies, backed by institutional and regulatory framework (2)

Côte d’Ivoire has large renewable energy sources that could increase access to electricity and create energy security

  • Develop and communicate transparent energy strategy that defines role of renewables within the future energy mix and the role of off-grid technology in energy supply.

  • Set up agency to manage energy and renewables and speed up national growth of renewables.

  • Set rules for development of renewables.

  • Encourage creation of association of private stakeholders in renewables.





Create incentives for private firms to use off-grid solar technology and biomass plants (3)

  • Investigate potential of renewables in Côte d’Ivoire and geographical location.

  • Identify possible sites for biomass plants using agricultural waste and lobby private sector to invest.

  • Educate agricultural stakeholders about value of waste so they can help set up collection and supply networks of raw materials.

  • Adopt international quality and performance standards (as set by ECOWAS) for renewable energy products for consumers.

  • Give tax incentives (customs reductions, lower VAT) on consumer energy items that comply with quality and performance standards.

  • Harmonise solar energy standards and incentives with ECOWAS countries to expand market, make more economies of scale and create good economic climate to attract private investors.




Ministry of Agriculture


Give infrastructure planning a long-term strategic vision (4)

Poorly conceived and planned infrastructure wastes limited public money

  • Analyse major national, regional and international trends and uncertainties relevant to Côte d’Ivoire’s long-term development.

  • Draft strategic vision and long-term development goals.

  • Make public the strategic vision and analyses that underpin it.

  • Apply this vision and the development goals to sector strategies, infrastructure planning, prioritising of projects and the PND.

  • Make annual updated report on major trends and uncertainties which will enable scenarios to be updated if necessary.

  • Set up system to monitor major trends and uncertainties.

President’s office, MEMPD, Ministry of Budget, Ministry of Finance, sector ministries


Increase transparency and dialogue in planning, choosing and assessing projects (5)

Transparency and dialogue make for better decisions in infrastructure development

  • Make public investment programme (PIP) easily accessible to the public, as well as how infrastructure investments are prioritised.

  • Produce guide for holding public hearings.

  • Make approval of projects conditional on public hearing at preparation stage.

  • Amend law on PPPs to require public hearing for all infrastructure projects.

  • Send economic studies of projects to Budget or Finance Ministry for independent assessment.



Ministry of Budget Ministry of Finance

Make financing of road maintenance fund (FER) permanent and more transparent (6)

Road network in poor shape for want of regular maintenance

  • Consider boosting FER’s funding, by increasing TSU tax and number of tolls on main roads.

  • Separate financing of road upgrading from regular maintenance costs.

  • Seek multilateral and bilateral funding for upgrading road network.

Ministry of Economic

Infrastructure FER

Ministry of Budget or Ministry of Finance

Competitive infrastructure (ER 2)

Tighten public procurement rules (7)

Not enough competition in infrastructure management

  • Extend penalties to cover all unjustified violations of procurement rules, including over-the-counter agreements.

  • More administrative penalties to deter public officials.

  • More use of disciplinary and criminal sanctions for seriously violating procurement law.

  • Include PPPs in procurement law.

  • More transparency for major projects above a certain value that are agreed on directly.

  • Carry out regular audits of over-the-counter deals to ensure they are legal.

Ministry of Budget ANRMP Office of Public Procurement(DMP)

Introduce more competition and incentives in electricity sector (8)

  • Make running transport network and distribution and sale of electricity competitive by putting their contracts out to tender when they come up for renewal in 2020.

  • Make production of electricity competitive by putting contracts out to tender when they come up for renewal.

  • Consider making sector more competitive by breaking it up, introducing wholesale markets and amending production contracts.

Ministry of Oil and Energy


Change regulation and structure of ITC sector to reduce prices (9)

ITC sector not competitive enough and Internet access not affordable for many households

  • Encourage entry of a fourth credible mobile-phone operator, which could have financial and technological capacity to win big share of market.

  • Amend specifications for mobile operators to oblige them to offer minimum geographical coverage.

  • Independent experts should look at access offers by existing operators to ensure they do not hamper entry of new operators.

  • Change rules to cut cost of network interconnection and encourage entry of new operators.

  • Encourage new providers of fixed-line internet access.

  • Draft operational model and regulations to access high-speed lines currently under construction.





Governance in Abidjan port must deliver better performance (10)

Abidjan port not competitive enough

  • Change governing board’s membership by decree to include independent members with useful private sector experience.

  • Include in PAA statutes legal obligation for board members to concern themselves only with port’s interests.

  • Set performance targets for costs and freight-handling time and appoint independent monitoring committee reporting back to board.

  • Base assessment of port managers and their pay on how far performance goals are met.

President’s office, Ministry of Transport Ministry of Economic Infrastructure, Abidjan port

Singapore, Netherlands(Rotterdam)

Review PAA’s procedures (11)

  • A strong and independent body should undertake a survey of the port backed by offices of prime minister and president.

Offices of the president and prime minister, Ministry of Transport

Introduce transparent and impartial procedures and practices (12)

Investment should be good value for money throughout life of infrastructure

  • Include analysis of alternatives in pre-feasibility studies.

  • Harmonise practices and standards for PPPs and traditional projects.

  • Draft and make public a roadmap for planning and carrying out all infrastructure projects, whatever their sector or mode of implementation.




Ministry of Finance

United Kingdom

Establish independent monitoring and assessment methods during life of infrastructure (13)

  • Provide means to monitor and assess performance of operators and suppliers of economic infrastructure.

  • Send major projects (PPP and traditional) for independent examination by state auditing board.

  • Authorise Court of Auditors to carry out audits on infrastructure projects by increasing staff to take on this extra work.

  • Establish learning loop to use lessons drawn from audits and strengthen planning and assessment for new projects.

President’s office, CNP-PPP, sectoral ministries, Court of Auditors, Ministry of Finance

United Kingdom

Financially sustainable infrastructure (ER 3)

Control medium and long-term infrastructure costs and risks (14)

Infrastructure project costs must be anticipated

  • Estimate operational and maintenance costs at planning stage of projects.

  • Manage impact of projects on public finances by involving Ministry of Budget in planning and preparation.

  • Publish annual report on all compensation, guarantees and other financial exposure linked to PPPs, as well as budgeted payments and revenue during life of PPPs.

  • Include recurrent infrastructure costs (operation, maintenance and PPP payments) in pluriannual budget planning (such as medium-term budget framework -- MTBF).

  • Take account of risks and compensation clauses linked to PPPs in budget documents.

  • With PPPs funded by taxpayers, include PPP payments in calculating public debt and use international financial reporting standards (IFRS).

Ministry of Budget, Ministry of Finance CNP-PPP

United Kingdom

Chapter 4: Giving business and individuals access to funding

Growth of the Ivorian economy is hampered by lack of funding. The banking sector dominates the financial system but does not offer sufficient loans to businesses. Financial intermediation costs are high because of major credit risk that banks try to offset by requiring substantial collateral. Banks also do not have enough long-term capital to fund the expansion of firms. Alternative funding sources (such as leasing or the stock market) are still very undeveloped.

Expected result

What? (Recommendations)


How? (Actions)


Country models

Less credit risk and better assessed (ER 1)

Increase coverage of population through credit information office (1)

Asymmetrical information about solvency of borrowers increases perception of risk by financial institutions

  • Encourage bank customers to share their details with the Creditinfo Volo office through awareness and publicity campaigns about data confidentiality and usefulness of credit information office, and courses about rights and obligations involved.

  • Encourage banks to inform former customers.

  • Encourage banks to sign up to the credit office.

  • Use credit office to supervise risk only and no longer respond to requests of lenders.

  • Make new loans conditional on report of borrower’s credit status from credit office.

  • Encourage large public utilities, mobile-phone companies and small decentralised financial systems to sign up to credit office.

  • Add positive information to the database promptly.

  • Ensure security of data (cyber-security).

  • Propose credit-score service broader than solvency report.

BCEAO, Creditinfo Volo, APBEF, large public utilities, MEF

Singapore, Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco

Make credit centres work better with information about firms (2)

  • Computerise passing on of bank data to centre for payment problems to speed up case-handling and publishing data.

  • Check banks have passed on data to credit information centres when drafting twice-yearly reports by the BCEAO banking commission.

  • Set up penalties system for banks that do not pass on information.

BCEAO, banking commission, APBEF, MEF

Encourage growth of mutuals (3)

Risk-sharing not diversified enough.

Step 1: Set up special legal and regulatory framework (to authorise mutual guarantee associations to act as non-profit co-operatives, without much initial funding) and provide tax incentives.

Step 2: Work with a sector to create experimental mutual funded by private sector.

  • Choose body (Chamber of Commerce or professional association) to promote mutual.

  • Set strict internal governance rules (registering firms, validating cases, accounting and management procedures, internal monitoring).

  • Stage awareness and publicity campaigns about productive saving.

  • Train officials (risk analysis, relations with banking sector, good governance) in partnership with APBEF.

  • Investigate possibility and minimum duration of government participation.

MEF, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Trade, umbrella-organisations, APBEF, Chamber of Commerce and Industry, consular chambers, APBEF


Limit number of financial statements of firms (4)

Balance-sheets of firms often not reliable, delaying bank decisions about loans.

Step 1: Computerise and link systems that handle financial statements (GUDEF at DGI, INS, BCEAO balance-sheet office).

Step 2: Let one of these bodies manage this single inventory system.

Step 3: Create online platform containing all these financial statements, open to small number of users (such as banks).


Improve auditing of SMEs (5)

  • Make SMEs aware of illegality of some accountants.

  • Rapidly set up internal monitoring system and ensure compliance with ethics and rules.

  • Develop external monitoring for WAEMU-level quality-control.

Accountants’ association, National Accounting Council

Modernise certified management centres (6)

  • Do survey of achievements of CGAs.

  • Based on the results, introduce incentives (tax-breaks, etc.) to attract accountants to them.

DGI, Accountants’ association, FIPME, MPME

System of collaterals works better (ER 2)

Expand activities of commercial court (7)

Realising collateral still sometimes a problem.

  • Open courts in San Pedro and Abidjan Sud.

  • Gradually increase staff of Abidjan court.

  • Continue efforts to make courts more communicative and transparent.

Ministry of Justice

Create national register of guarantees / collateral (8)

Collateral system not transparent enough.

Step 1: Include all local RCCMs in a national computerised registry of all firms (also helping to confirm their existence). Step 2: Investigate best way to set up and manage a register of collateral:

  • within public-private partnership with credit information office.

  • as part of international body such as BCEAO.

Step 3: Expand eligible collateral by merging BCEAO and Ohada rules.

BCEAO, Abidjan court, MEF


Complete surveying operations (9)

Hard to monitor borrowers

  • Give DGI sufficient staff and funding to complete surveying of all urban land.

  • Introduce nationwide land capitalisation and surveying programme (see Chapter 2).

Ministry of Budget

National savings increase with maturity lengthened (ER 3)

Develop locally adapted savings products (10)

Banking sector dominated by short-term funding

  • Investigate how tax incentives could encourage market for medium or long-term savings products.

  • Work with ministries of economy and integration and with sectoral ministries to persuade Ivorians in certain countries to sign up for savings schemes for affordable housing.

  • Work with APBEF to get students to buy savings products.

  • Create legal and regulatory framework to sell innovative savings products by using mobile phones.

MEF, Ministry of Budget, Ministry of Integration, sectoral ministries

Morocco, Kenya

Continue plan to set up deposits and consignments fund (11)

  • Set up, with top-level support, a deposits and consignments fund (CDC).

  • Create interministerial committee to monitor project.

  • Make benchmarking visits, especially to Morocco and France, to investigate the idea, especially relating to funding.

  • Study possibility of introducing tax-free savings product.


France, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania

Better financial inclusion with new bank-use solutions (ER 4)

Encourage inter-operability between mobile-phone companies for using mobile money (12)

Financial services and products not sufficiently tailored to local conditions

  • Undertake nationwide survey to discover current and future demand for interoperability.

  • Investigate capacity of payment systems and platforms and nature of a clearing-house.

  • Study gap between current regulations and those needed (laws and institutions) for interoperability.

  • Examine competition aspects that could hinder interoperability (especially prices).

  • Organise discussions between all parties involved.

MEF, BCEAO, ART-CI, mobile-phone companies, APBEF, consumers’ association


Experiment with system of banking agents (13)

  • Set up a regulatory framework setting out criteria for appointing bank agents in country areas and making transactions secure.

  • Simplify type and amount of paperwork needed to open such an account.

  • Carry out a survey a few months after introduction to see how much system is used.

MEF, Ministry of posts and ITC, BCEAO banking commission, APBEF, village chiefs

Brazil, India, Philippines, Kenya, South Africa

Give institutional support for innovative financial products (14)

  • Make innovative products a priority within PDSFI.

  • Discuss with BCEAO setting up unit dealing with innovation and new products.

BCEAO, banking commission, Ministry of Economy

Kenya, Philippines

Support lasting growth of microfinance (15)

Financial position of biggest microfinance institution (Unacoopec) is poor.

  • Draft plan to revive Unacoopec.


More confidence of individuals in banking system (ER 5)

Draft national strategy for financial education in partnership with private sector (16)

Ivorians know little about finance

Step 1: Assess the public’s knowledge of finance and their needs.

Step 2: Formalise discussions between stakeholders, especially in banking and finance, about funding financial education programmes.

Step 3: Increase public knowledge of finance, especially targeting:

  • Students/pupils: include money matters in school curriculum from primary level.

  • General population / civil society: use mainstream media.

  • Professional people: offer short financial courses for small producers (such as agricultural co-operatives) or village chiefs.

Ministry of Education, MEF, BCEAO, APBEF, media

South Africa, Kenya, Indonesia

Create observatory to monitor financial services quality (17)

Banks not transparent enough

  • Ministry of Economy to authorise setting up observatory.

  • Create website giving cost of bank services.

  • Help the public communicate:

    1. – Test mobile-phone app allowing people to pass on banking problems to observatory.

    2. – Create online platform for passing on information from consumers.

  • Create mediation service at observatory.

  • Develop mediation services by banks, with committee meeting at observatory.


Strengthen consumer protection (18)

  • Pass consumer law in parliament.

  • Ensure implementation.

Ministry of Trade parliament, federal consumers’ union

Morocco, South Africa

Alternative funding to bank loans (ER 6)

Encourage growth of leasing (19)

Many SME funding solutions under-used

  • Pass law on leasing.

  • Ensure implementation.

Encourage firms to raise funds on stock market:

  • Organise public awareness and public training courses with regional stock exchange (BRVM).

MEF, Ministry of Budget

Encourage use of regional stock market (20)

  • Make access to BRVM easier.

  • Familiarise senior students with stock exchange (courses in stock market law, financial instruments, current regulations)

  • Reduce size of shares to make them more affordable and increase market liquidity through broader public shareholding.

  • Devise new financial products.

  • Increase regional financial co-operation.

  • Create new department handling SMEs.

  • Continue discussions about linking the BRVM to other African stock markets.



Chapter 5: Investing in the workforce through quality education and appropriate skills

Too many Ivorians still leave school without basic skills needed to take part in social and economic life and respond to the economy’s needs. Despite good progress in recent years, pre-school and junior-secondary enrolment is still too low and for those who do enrol, education is often mediocre, with results well below international standards. Teaching conditions are poor and under-qualified teachers in effect prevent acquisition of basic skills, which feeds already very high illiteracy.

To ensure quality education, considerable efforts are needed to speed up training and upgrading of teachers, and ensure good material conditions, especially in rural areas and in technical training. To make sure graduates have skills required by employers, the Ivorian education system must take account of employers’ needs, including in the informal sector. This requires a major effort to improve the status and image of technical education and to shift assessment towards practical skills acquired.

Expected result

What? (Recommendations)


How? (Actions)


Country models

Better primary and junior-secondary education results (pupil enrolment and acquired skills) (ER 1)

Improve initial teacher-training (1)

To ensure all teachers have required skills to help all Ivorian schoolchildren consolidate and build on their acquired knowledge.

Follow the MENET plan:

  • Expand access to basic teacher-training, beyond ENS and CAFOP, to other higher education institutions.

  • Expand teacher-training facilities.

  • Allow young teachers to work for a year as an assistant, supervised by established teachers, instead of going straight into teaching (for example, by arranging for bigger classes with teacher and assistant).

  • See that teachers going into private schools meet same certification standards as those entering public system.



Private schools

University graduates

Malawi, Guyana,


Strengthen on-the-job training and skills development (2)

  • Formalise better organised and structured on-the-job teacher-training. Design local programmes to increase skills that would include several schools in same district, with teacher or head teacher co-ordinating them.

  • Establish specific targets to develop teacher skills in each school.

  • Ensure that inspectors support local teacher-skills development groups by acting as links with national resources, and by monitoring improvements in teaching capacity.

CAFOP / Directorate of schools and colleges

Advisory team in each school


Ensure geography and socio-economic background of the class do not undermine teaching quality (3)

  • Draft and implement programme to encourage teachers to work in less popular places or with less popular classes by offering higher pay and faster promotion prospects.

    1. – Difficult places would be defined by geography (e.g. travel time to towns over a certain size).

    2. – Hardship would be based on socio-economic indicators among students (e.g. literacy of parents, whether household gets social aid).

  • Ensure experienced teachers or those with local connections (such as same ethnic group) get more pay to work in difficult places and new or inexperienced teachers are encouraged to take posts where they will get most help.


Ministry of Budget

Ministry of Civil Service




Re-equip schools, focusing on sanitary facilities, classrooms and electrical power-points (4)

Invest in material teaching and learning environment to ensure fairer access.

  • Draft plan to ensure schools have basic facilities, especially sanitation and learning tools, and investment spaced out and prioritised (classrooms, desks, blackboards) and then more costly equipment (electrical power-points).

  • Seek additional support from donors to fund this investment.

  • Calculate and include in national budget enough funding to maintain these facilities.


Donor groups

Ministry of Finance


Continue building neighbourhood secondary schools (5)

  • Continue programme to build neighbourhood secondary schools to increase fair access to education.

  • To choose where to build these schools, designate catchment areas using socio-economic and demographic data collected in census and household surveys.

  • Use catchment area concept to help allocate local teachers to local schools.

  • Ensure maintenance and other recurrent costs of new schools can be paid for from budget.


Make school attendance more attractive by providing school lunches and maximising range of school subsidies and other social protection (6)

See that all families have sufficient means to keep their children in school until the end of junior-secondary school.

  • Expand school lunch programme to all public schools, building on existing schemes.

  • Gradually incorporate in national budget and planning enrolment programmes which encourage attendance and which have been positively and independently assessed. This should ensure implementation is transferred to government (e.g. WHO school meals programmes, school-material kits, direct cash grants to poorest households).

  • Building on existing programmes, design and follow roadmap towards social protection system including conditional cash grants for households sending children to school.

Ministry of Health, Social Affairs and Solidarity


Development partners (WFP)

Ministry of Health, Social Affairs and Solidarity

Technical education supplies workforce with skills needed for economic transformation (ER 2)

Invest in physical school infrastructure (7)

Ensure technical education develops the skills needed in labour market

Continue existing programmes

  • Speed up donor-funded technical school construction and re-equipment.

  • Calculate and include in national budget sufficient funding to maintain these facilities.

  • Ensure they are upgraded.



donors and donor co-ordination groups

Involve employers more in designing technical and vocational training programmes (8)

  • Implement and build on existing METFP plans

  • Sponsor company internships (including informal sector).

  • Organise regular sessions of observatories including employer groups and training institutions to ensure they consult about development of courses.

  • Target sectors with most-reported skill shortages (agro-industry, tourism, construction, maintenance).

  • Refocus skills certification on actual abilities rather than just completing a course.

  • Arrange to recognise and certify skills acquired on the job (including informal sector).


private sector, employer groups (CNA-CI, CCI-CI, CNMCI, fipme)

technical ministries (Industry and Mines, Energy)

Ministry of Crafts

Chamber of Trades

support from donors: AfDB, Arab countries, World Bank, national budget


Take further steps to change society’s image of technical training quality (9)

Improve perceptions of technical and vocational training and increase interest in enrolling

  • Organise social events (competitions, show days, special Olympiads) to demonstrate quality and relevance of skills obtained in technical education.

  • Gather and distribute data on employment outcomes of those who underwent training, as well as other types of education. This data could be sought in regular household surveys.


Canada, Austria, Germany

Ensure entry into technical education is two-way process, rather than being perceived as a dead-end after failure (10)

Implement plans already developed

  • Replace one-way system by three flexible access points to technical education (end of primary school at CAPEC, end of 3rd grade and end of secondary).

  • See that equipment in private schools is upgraded.

  • Ensure routes back to conventional schooling from technical training through flexibility (linked classes, speedier courses and equivalences).





Education deficit reduced through adult education (ER 3)

Strengthen adult literacy programmes adapted to different genders (11)

Ensure adults who missed out on basic education can acquire it and upgrade their technical and vocational skills

  • Design and implement Ivorian adult education and literacy programme, adapted for gender differences and as part of local literacy training and education.

  • Offer more traditional literacy programmes to those who have recently left education system, with emphasis on community approach.

MENET, aid donors

South Africa, Malawi

Chapter 6: Tax policies to create a dynamic private sector and efficient government

Côte d’Ivoire’s tax revenue is not sufficient to pay for its growing need for public investment in infrastructure, education and healthcare and the tax system is hampered by inefficiency. The government needs to modernise the system and broaden the tax base by gradually reducing dependence on customs revenue, increasing contribution of indirect taxes, eliminating many legal tax exemptions and streamlining the tax administration. Simplifying tax payment is vital to enlarging the tax base. Major long-term investment would make the administration more efficient, for example through greater computerisation and modern staff management. The extent and complexity of the system and its administration requires that reforms be based on thorough analysis.

Expected result

What? (Recommendations)


How? (Actions)


Country models

Tax administration works well (ER 1)

Modernise procedures (1)

DGI’s limitations (staff and technical) make it less efficient

Strengthen and modernise tax administration:

  • Investigate how to automate routine tasks and computerise.

  • Design gradual computerisation strategy for DGI based on Sydonia customs system.

  • Discuss with funding sources technical and financial support to continue computerisation.

Increase potential of land tax by compiling land database linked to surveying, industrial land data and other sources.

Ministry of Budget

Viet Nam, Mozambique

More transparency and taxpayer confidence (2)

Poor administration transparency and lack of taxpayer confidence

  • Boost transparency and communication strategy.

  • Develop online calculator for SMEs.

  • Expand auditing and inspection for all departments.

Active campaign against tax fraud (3)

  • Continue efforts to choose tax investigation cases based on risk management.

  • Increase inspections using wider range of methods.

Ministry of Budget

Tax base broadened and simplified (ER 2)

Reduce VAT exemptions (4)

Tax base is narrow

  • Abolish VAT exemption for investment phase of new businesses.

  • Charge VAT on some currently exempt items.

  • Abolish “social” exemptions (such as for water and electricity) that do not fulfil their purpose.

  • Consider impact of redistribution when considering exemptions (for example, what social group benefits most from exemption relative to its total consumption).


Review tax incentives and exemptions (5)

Various tax exemptions are very costly and create distortions for firms.

Avoid granting sectors new advantages.

  • Incorporate all tax incentives into national tax law.

  • Study advantages to see which could be abolished.

  • Review procedures for giving incentives and leave decision entirely to Ministry of Economy and Finance.

Mining law:

  • Consider abolishing customs exemptions.

  • Abolish industrial and commercial profits tax-break.

  • No further tax-breaks for mining sub-contractors.

  • Shorten stability clause to reasonable period and impartially set mining tax base according to ore quality and world prices.


Simplify and strengthen tax system (6)

Few private sector stakeholders comply with tax rules and are not in system

Thoroughly investigate simplifying taxes:

  • Gradually abolish minor turnover taxes, such as licence tax.

  • Simplify liabilities for small businesses, reducing minor taxes that penalise them.

Begin discussions in medium-term with private sector (SMEs and informal firms) to reach balance between tax liability and advantages of joining formal sector.

Ministry of Budget

Review flat-rate tax to strengthen the informal sector and stimulate growth. (7)

  • Reform flat-rate tax, to shift from fixed sum to turnover percentage for each income bracket on sliding scale to motivate firms to join formal sector, but also to pass to full-assessment system above certain turnover figure.

  • Tighter monitoring of firms under flat-rate regime.

Ministry of Budget

Tax system works better (ER 3)

Bigger role for excise taxes (8)

  • Extend excise taxes to some luxury products.

Ministry of Budget

Bigger role for land taxes (9)

  • Use surveying data effectively.

Ministry of Budget

Gradually reduce customs duties (10)

Tax structure depends heavily on customs duties

  • Gradually reduce customs duties in line with government commitment under WAEMU tax transition.

Ministry of Budget

Review income tax (11)

Investigate how to simplify scheduler system in several stages:

  • Switch to dualist system, where employment income would be progressively taxed while capital income would be taxed at lower and uniform rate.

  • Keep income tax but reform it, especially by:

    1. – Reducing tax rates and broadening tax-base.

    2. – Reduce number of employment income tax brackets and set lower rates.

    3. – Reduce deductions tending to favour wealthier households (especially 20% employment income allowance and deduction of general income tax (IGR) from its own base).

Ministry of Budget