The OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts reviews of the development co-operation efforts of DAC members every five to six years. DAC peer reviews seek to improve the quality and effectiveness of development co-operation policies, programmes and systems, and to promote good development partnerships for greater impact on poverty reduction and sustainable development in developing countries.

From 2021, DAC peer reviews no longer cover all components identified in the peer review analytical framework ( Instead they highlight good and innovative practices and reflect on key challenges faced by the reviewed member on select themes, recommending improvements. These themes are selected through consultation with representatives from the reviewed member and its partners.

At the beginning of the process, the reviewed member submits a self-assessment. Based on this, staff from the Secretariat and two DAC members designated as peer reviewers visit the member’s capital to interview officials and parliamentarians, as well as representatives of civil society, non-government organisations and the private sector. This is followed by visits to up to two partner countries or territories, where the team meets with the representatives from the reviewed member as well as senior officials and representatives of the partner’s administration, parliamentarians, civil society, the private sector and other development partners. The team then compiles the findings of these consultations and prepares a set of recommendations which are then discussed during a formal meeting of the DAC prior to finalisation of the report. During the whole process, the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate provides analytical support and is responsible for developing and maintaining, in close consultation with the DAC, the methodology and analytical framework within which the peer reviews are undertaken.

To support learning between DAC members, the report highlights a number of areas of good practice from the reviewed member from which other DAC members and development actors can draw inspiration. These are documented in further detail on the Development Co-operation TIPs – Tools Insights Practices – website ( – an online peer learning platform that offers insights into making policies, systems and partnerships more effective. Peer review reports are complemented by a “Snapshot” of the member’s development co-operation (, which includes factual information on its policies, institutional arrangements, finance and management systems.

The analysis presented in this report is based on (1) a desk review, including Spain’s self-assessment and written assessments provided by more than 15 partners (multilateral, non-government and academic partners as well as partner governments); and (2) an extensive process of virtual consultation with actors and stakeholders in Spain and Colombia (listed in Annex B). The report, which contains both findings and recommendations, fed into the DAC meeting at the OECD on 14 December 2021, at which senior officials from Spain responded to questions and comments shared by DAC members.

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