Health at a Glance compares key indicators for population health and health system performance across OECD member countries and key emerging economies. This 2021 edition presents the latest comparable data, illustrating differences across countries and over time in terms of health status, risk factors for health, access to and quality of care, and health resources. A special focus is given to the health impact of COVID-19, including both direct and indirect impacts of the virus on people and health systems.

This publication would not have been possible without the contribution of national data correspondents from the countries covered in this report, who provided most of the data and metadata, as well as detailed feedback to a draft of the report. The OECD also recognises the contribution of other international organisations, notably Eurostat and the World Health Organization, for providing data and comments. The European Union provided financial and substantive input. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the OECD member countries, the European Union or other international organisations.

Health at a Glance 2021 was prepared by the OECD Health Division under the co-ordination of Chris James. Chapter 1 was prepared by Chris James and Gabriel Di Paolantonio; Chapter 2 by Michael Mueller, Elina Suzuki, Gabriel Di Paolantonio, Emily Hewlett and Chris James, with research assistance from Julia Aubé; Chapter 3 by Elina Suzuki, Gabriel Di Paolantonio, Emily Hewlett and Chris James; Chapter 4 by Marion Devaux, Alena Piatrova and Elina Suzuki, with input from Michele Cecchini; Chapter 5 by Chris James, Gaëlle Balestat, Marie-Clémence Canaud, Michael Mueller, Caroline Penn, Caroline Berchet, Tiago Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi and Jillian Oderkirk; Chapter 6 by Katherine de Bienassis, Rie Fujisawa, Frédéric Daniel, Eliana Barrenho, Gabriel Di Paolantonio, Candan Kendir, Philip Haywood, Suzannah Chapman and Silje Rene, with input from Niek Klazinga; Chapter 7 by Michael Mueller, Fan Xiang, Sebastian Klavus, Luca Lorenzoni and David Morgan; Chapter 8 by Gaetan Lafortune, Gaëlle Balestat and Marie-Clémence Canaud; Chapter 9 by Ruth Lopert, Suzannah Chapman, Martin Wenzl, Fan Xiang and Marie-Clémence Canaud; Chapter 10 by Elina Suzuki, Julia Aubé, Marie-Clémence Canaud, Paola Sillitti, Katherine de Bienassis, Michael Mueller, Tiago Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi and Eileen Rocard, with input from Ana Llena Nozal. The OECD databases used in this publication are managed by Gaëlle Balestat, Marie-Clémence Canaud, Gabriel Di Paolantonio, Rie Fujisawa, David Morgan and Michael Mueller. This publication benefited from comments by Francesca Colombo, Frederico Guanais, Mark Pearson and Stefano Scarpetta. Editorial assistance was provided by Marie-Clémence Canaud, Lucy Hulett, Liv Gudmundson and Lydia Wanstall.

Metadata, Legal and Rights

This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. Extracts from publications may be subject to additional disclaimers, which are set out in the complete version of the publication, available at the link provided.

© OECD 2021

The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found at