Education Policy Outlook 2021

Shaping Responsive and Resilient Education in a Changing World

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Education systems operate in a world that is constantly evolving towards new equilibria, yet short-term crises may disrupt, accelerate or divert longer-term evolutions. This Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in Education Policy aims to support policy makers to balance the urgent challenge of building eco-systems that adapt in the face of disruption and change (resilience), and the important challenge of navigating the ongoing evolution from industrial to post-industrial societies and economies (responsiveness). Building on international evidence and analysis from over 40 education systems, this framework endeavours to establish tangible, transferable and actionable definitions of resilience. These definitions, which are the goals of the framework (Why?), are underpinned by policy components of responsiveness (What?), which define priority areas for education policy makers. Policy pointers for resilience (How?) then illustrate how policy makers can apply these components in ways that promote resilience at the learner, broader learning environment and system levels of the policy ecosystem. Finally, a transversal component looks into the people and the processes undertaken in order to reach a given purpose (Who?). The report has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy.



The Flemish Community of Belgium has been implementing dual education to develop greater flexibility in the education system. It piloted a new model of dual vocational education (Schoolbank op de werkplek) from 2016-19. Since 2019, all secondary schools in the Flemish Community can offer dual education, subject to an approved programme application. The number of dual courses has been increasing from the start, with well over 100 courses that can now be organised in dual-learning format. The Flemish government supports schools and companies in this, and most participating students spend at least 20 hours per week in the workplace. An evaluation of the pilot highlighted the key role of programme counsellors and mentors in ensuring the quality of training, and found that students’ participation improved their connections to the world of work (Flemish Department of Education and Training, n.d.[6]). Subsquent studies have focused on the costs and benefits of dual training for different stakeholders, the reasons learners choose – or may not choose – dual learning, and how to best encourage participation.



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