OECD Employment Outlook 2023

Artificial Intelligence and the Labour Market

image of OECD Employment Outlook 2023

The 2023 edition of the OECD Employment Outlook examines the latest labour market developments in OECD countries. It focuses, in particular, on the evolution of labour demand and widespread shortages, as well as on wage developments in times of high inflation and related policies. It also takes stock of the current evidence on the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) on the labour market. Progress in AI has been such that, in many areas, its outputs have become almost indistinguishable from that of humans, and the landscape continues to change quickly, as recent developments in large language models have shown. This, combined with the falling costs of developing and adopting AI systems, suggests that OECD countries may be on the verge of a technological revolution that could fundamentally change the workplace. While there are many potential benefits from AI, there are also significant risks that need to be urgently addressed, despite the uncertainty about the short- to medium-term evolution of AI. This edition investigates how to get the balance right in addressing the possible negative effects of AI on labour market outcomes while not stifling its benefits.

English Also available in: French

Artificial intelligence, job quality and inclusiveness

For many workers, the effects of artificial intelligence (AI) will be visible not in terms of lost employment but through changes in the tasks they perform at work and changes in job quality. This chapter reviews the current empirical evidence of the effect of AI on job quality and inclusiveness. For workers with the skills to complement AI, task changes should be accompanied by rising wages, but wages could decline for workers who find themselves squeezed into a diminished share of tasks due to automation. AI may affect job quality through other mechanisms as well. For example, it can reduce tedious or dangerous tasks, but it may also leave workers with a higher-paced work environment. The chapter further shows that using AI to support managers’ tasks affects the job quality of their subordinates. Finally, the chapter shows that using AI affects workplace inclusiveness and fairness, with implications for job quality.

English Also available in: French


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error