Education Policy Outlook 2021

Shaping Responsive and Resilient Education in a Changing World

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Education systems operate in a world that is constantly evolving towards new equilibria, yet short-term crises may disrupt, accelerate or divert longer-term evolutions. This Framework for Responsiveness and Resilience in Education Policy aims to support policy makers to balance the urgent challenge of building eco-systems that adapt in the face of disruption and change (resilience), and the important challenge of navigating the ongoing evolution from industrial to post-industrial societies and economies (responsiveness). Building on international evidence and analysis from over 40 education systems, this framework endeavours to establish tangible, transferable and actionable definitions of resilience. These definitions, which are the goals of the framework (Why?), are underpinned by policy components of responsiveness (What?), which define priority areas for education policy makers. Policy pointers for resilience (How?) then illustrate how policy makers can apply these components in ways that promote resilience at the learner, broader learning environment and system levels of the policy ecosystem. Finally, a transversal component looks into the people and the processes undertaken in order to reach a given purpose (Who?). The report has been prepared with evidence from the Education Policy Outlook series – the OECD’s analytical observatory of education policy.



In Turkey, under a revised co-operation model (2019), VET sector representatives collaborate on curriculum design, provide work-based learning for students and teachers, offer scholarships and prioritise students for employment. Based on a VET mapping study carried out in 2019, Turkey has also sought to match the specialisms of VET institutions with the needs of the regional economy in which they are located more effectively. There have also been considerable efforts to increase the involvement of VET teachers in in-service training. The Co-operation Protocol for Teaching allows teachers to carry out professional development in real work environments; Turkey has also developed distance-learning opportunities for VET teachers. As a result of these efforts, the scale of in-service professional development for VET teachers has increased by six times since 2018. According to a national review of vocational education from 2018, labour force participation and employment rates were higher among VET students than students in the general upper secondary track. National-level data from 2020 points to a 17% increase in students choosing VET between 2018 and 2019 (Ministry of National Education of Turkey, 2018[6]). A report from the European Training Foundation underlined several improvements in Turkey’s VET provision but pointed to continued challenges in aligning skills with labour market demand (Zelloth, 2020[7]). Turkey is seeking to deepen the involvement of labour market partners in providing infrastructure for VET provision and in setting up schools.



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