Entrepreneurial attitude

Key findings

  • Empirical research generally shows a gender gap in the perception of barriers to business creation. However, women feel equally confident as men about their business and its future, including the prospects of job creation, once it is up and running.

  • Online training and media are considered by men and women alike as relevant sources of knowledge to improve their ability to run a business. In contrast, female-run businesses are more inclined to learn from family or friends than their male counterparts, while male entrepreneurs value learning from other businesses.

  • Businesses run by men are more likely to be involved in international trade, whether as exporters or importers, than female-run enterprises. In addition, among male-run businesses significant shares (on average 33% in OECD countries) export to businesses only, while high shares of female-run businesses in all countries export only to individual consumers (on average 50% in OECD countries), reflecting, in part, gender differences in the prevalent sectors of activity of female and male entrepreneurs.

Relevance

The attitude of individuals toward the entrepreneurial risk as well as their confidence as business owners reflect a combination of personal characteristics (including the skills acquired through education and professional life) and factors inherent to societal values and the underlying business environment. Indicators measuring gender gap in entrepreneurial attitudes can provide important insights for policies promoting gender equality in entrepreneurship.

Definitions

Male (female) owned/managed enterprises are identified as enterprises having at least 65% of male (female) owners or top managers.

Positive current business status and Positive business outlook respectively report the reply “Positive” to the questions: “How would you evaluate the current state of your business?” and “What is your outlook for the next 6 months on your business?” respectively, where possible answers include “Positive”, “Neutral” or “Negative”.

Prospects of job creation are measured by the employment outlook of enterprises, as provided by the reply to the question “How do you expect the number of employees in your business to change in the next six months?”, where possible answers include “Increase”, “No change” or “Decrease”.

Sources of learning show the share of respondents that pointed to each category when answering the multiple-choice question ”How do you learn new things that will help you to run your business?”, where categories include: “other businesses”, “friends and family”, “online search”, “online blogs and forum” “online training”, “offline training”, “media”.

Involvement in international trade measures positive answers to the question “Is your company engaged in international trade?”, where trading companies include those that export only, import only or are both exporters and importers.

Export scope shows the share of respondents that pointed to each category of export destinations, where possible answers include “Only businesses”, “Only individuals” and “Both”.

Information on data for Israel: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932315602.

Comparability

Data are drawn from the Future of Business Survey, a monthly survey conducted by Facebook and designed in cooperation with the OECD Statistics Directorate and the World Bank. The survey is administrated via an online questionnaire enquiring about perceptions on the current state and future outlook of the business, and more broadly of the economy and relevant industry, and on the past and expected development of employment in the business. The survey currently covers 42 countries in developed and emerging economies, where the reference population are enterprises having a Facebook account. The country samples are not stratified, and figures in this section present unweighted data with respect to enterprise size, age and economic activity of enterprises.

Some care is needed when comparing results of the survey for developed and developing economies. The survey by design only covers those firms with a Facebook presence. In advanced economies, this cohort of firms is likely to be more representative than the total business population in developing economies.

Source

Facebook Future of Business Survey, www.futureofbusinesssurvey.org

Further reading

Facebook, OECD, World Bank (2017), Future of Business Survey - Gender Management in Business, January 2017, www.futureofbusinesssurvey.org

Facebook, OECD, World Bank (2016), Future of Business Survey - September 2016, www.futureofbusinesssurvey.org

OECD (2003), Business Tendency Surveys. A Handbook, OECD Paris Publishing, https://www.oecd.org/std/leading-indicators/31837055.pdf.

Figure 6.11. Positive current business status and outlook, by gender of ownership or top management
Percentage of survey respondents, average 2016 –2017
picture

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933564671

Figure 6.12. Positive prospects of job creation, by gender of ownership or top management
Percentage of survey respondents, average 2016-2017
picture

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933564690

Figure 6.13. Learning sources, by gender of ownership or top management
Percentage of survey respondents, average 2016-2017
picture

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933564709

Figure 6.14. Involvement in international trade, by gender of ownership or top management
Percentage of survey respondents, average 2016-2017
picture

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933564728

Figure 6.15. Export scope, by gender of ownership or top management
Percentage of all exporting firms, average 2016-2017
picture

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888933564747