OECD Regional Outlook 2016

Productive Regions for Inclusive Societies

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Regions and cities are where the effects of policies to promote economic growth and social inclusion are felt in day-to-day life. The OECD Regional Outlook 2016 examines the widening productivity gap across regions within countries, and the implications of these trends for the well-being of people living in different places. It discusses how structural policies, public investment and multi-level governance reforms can help boost productivity and address inclusion. Drawing on a survey of OECD countries, the Outlook  highlights country practices in regional, urban, and rural development policy that guide public investment. The Special Focus Part II on rural areas looks at different types of rural area and their productivity performance trends, and suggests that countries move towards a “Rural Policy 3.0”. The Policy Forum on Regions and Cities: Implementing Global Agendas includes chapters by many leading global organisations on how regions and cities can be instrumental in achieving the targets of agreements such as the Paris Accord and the Sustainable Development Goals.  Individual country profiles provide an overview of regional, urban and rural development policies as well as performance in terms of productivity and well-being among different regions.

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Chile is a unitary country with a low degree of decentralisation and a population of 18 million. The GDP per capita, at around USD 22 200, is only 54% of the OECD average, the 3rd lowest among OECD countries. With 1.9 municipalities per 100 000 inhabitants, Chile is the 8th least administratively fragmented country in the OECD. Inequality among Chile’s small regions (TL3) is the highest in the OECD, as measured by the Gini index, even though the gap has declined since 2000. Chile performs poorly on gender equality indicators. Chile has the widest gender gap in the OECD in life expectancy, with women living longer than men and the 3rd highest gender gap in participation rates, with men outperforming women in terms of being active in the labour force.



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