Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

Country Fact Sheets

image of Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

This report provides an overview of spatial and land-use planning systems across the OECD. It contains country fact sheets that focus on formal aspects of planning systems, as they are defined by laws and regulations. The country fact sheets describe the responsibilities of each level of government with respect to spatial and land-use planning. They include a description of all spatial and land-use plans of a country and show their hierarchical relations in a diagram. For most countries, the fact sheets also contain key statistics on land use. A summary chapter provides an overview of the information in the country fact sheets and discusses land value capture tools, land expropriation procedures, reforms of the planning system, and other issues. The information provided in this report was collected through a survey that involved academic experts on planning from all 32 countries covered.




The Netherlands is a unitary state with 3 levels of government; the national level, 12 provinces and 390 municipalities. The national government creates the legal framework for spatial planning that determines the responsibilities of individual actors. It decides based on a principle of subsidiarity, i.e. it gives powers to the lowest level of government if possible and to a higher level if necessary. Under this system, the national government is primarily responsible for areas and networks of national significance for the economic and social development of the country. These areas and networks are defined in the National Structure Plan. In urban regions around major transport hubs the national government works jointly with regional and local governments to manage development.


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