Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

Country Fact Sheets

image of Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

This report provides an overview of spatial and land-use planning systems across the OECD. It contains country fact sheets that focus on formal aspects of planning systems, as they are defined by laws and regulations. The country fact sheets describe the responsibilities of each level of government with respect to spatial and land-use planning. They include a description of all spatial and land-use plans of a country and show their hierarchical relations in a diagram. For most countries, the fact sheets also contain key statistics on land use. A summary chapter provides an overview of the information in the country fact sheets and discusses land value capture tools, land expropriation procedures, reforms of the planning system, and other issues. The information provided in this report was collected through a survey that involved academic experts on planning from all 32 countries covered.




Israel is a unitary state with one subnational level of government (255 local governments). Land-use planning is highly centralised with strong oversight at the national level over decisions at the municipal level. The national government influences land-use policies in several ways. First, it has the usual responsibilities for the framework law that outlines the spatial planning system of the country. Second, it prepares the National Master Plan (see below), which is approved by the cabinet. Third, it appoints most members of the six District Planning and Building Commissions and in this way determines the contents of District Master Plans. Fourth, the national government oversees Local Planning Commissions and the plans made by them. In principle, the Minister of Finance has the authority to review all local plans and determines which plans require his approval. In practice, ministerial intervention is rare. Fifth, the national government plans and funds major infrastructure projects.


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