Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

Country Fact Sheets

image of Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

This report provides an overview of spatial and land-use planning systems across the OECD. It contains country fact sheets that focus on formal aspects of planning systems, as they are defined by laws and regulations. The country fact sheets describe the responsibilities of each level of government with respect to spatial and land-use planning. They include a description of all spatial and land-use plans of a country and show their hierarchical relations in a diagram. For most countries, the fact sheets also contain key statistics on land use. A summary chapter provides an overview of the information in the country fact sheets and discusses land value capture tools, land expropriation procedures, reforms of the planning system, and other issues. The information provided in this report was collected through a survey that involved academic experts on planning from all 32 countries covered.




Germany is a federal country with four levels of government. Below the national government, 16 federal states exist. At an intermediate level, there are 402 administrative districts and at the local level 11 092 municipalities. For historical reasons three of the federal states – Berlin, Hamburg, and Bremen – cover only the territory of individual large cities and combine the functions of states and the municipal level. While smaller municipalities usually belong to a district, larger ones with roughly 100 000 or more inhabitants are independent of districts and combine the functions of municipal and district administration.


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