Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

Country Fact Sheets

image of Land-use Planning Systems in the OECD

This report provides an overview of spatial and land-use planning systems across the OECD. It contains country fact sheets that focus on formal aspects of planning systems, as they are defined by laws and regulations. The country fact sheets describe the responsibilities of each level of government with respect to spatial and land-use planning. They include a description of all spatial and land-use plans of a country and show their hierarchical relations in a diagram. For most countries, the fact sheets also contain key statistics on land use. A summary chapter provides an overview of the information in the country fact sheets and discusses land value capture tools, land expropriation procedures, reforms of the planning system, and other issues. The information provided in this report was collected through a survey that involved academic experts on planning from all 32 countries covered.




Canada is a federal state with three levels of government; the national government, 10 provinces and 3 territorial governments, and 3 805 local authorities, out of which 1 233 are general local governments and the remaining 2 572 are special purpose authorities, such as school districts. The division of powers between the federal government and the provinces is constitutionally defined, and provinces have full autonomy over land-use planning. However, the federal government plans for land uses under its direct control (e.g. federal lands in the National Capital Region, national waterways and parks). It can also influence land-use planning at the provincial and municipal levels through targeted programme and financial support – e.g. urban infrastructure programmes.


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