International Transport Forum Discussion Papers

ITF Discussion Papers make economic research, commissioned or carried out in-house at the International Transport Forum, available to researchers and practitioners. They describe preliminary results or research in progress by the author(s) and are published to stimulate discussion on a broad range of issues on which the ITF works.

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Piecing Together the Puzzle

Mobility as a Service from the User and Service Design Perspectives

Many regions are seeking to improve mobility choices for citizens, both in congested city settings and poorly connected peripheral communities. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is increasingly presented as a possible solution, yet beyond pilot level there are no examples to date of what a successful implementation of MaaS might look like. This paper reviews pilot studies and ongoing research into the user perspective on MaaS and the lessons learned thus far.


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