International Transport Forum Discussion Papers

ITF Discussion Papers make economic research, commissioned or carried out in-house at the International Transport Forum, available to researchers and practitioners. They describe preliminary results or research in progress by the author(s) and are published to stimulate discussion on a broad range of issues on which the ITF works.

English, French

High-occupancy Toll Lanes

Their Distributional Impact and Effect on Congestion

This paper reports the theoretical and empirical evidence on the distributional effects of Express Lanes. It also provides evidence of how they affect congestion, both in the Express Lanes themselves and in the parallel general-purpose lanes. The paper also helps put Express Lanes in context by discussing the merits of alternative approaches to managing congestion such as ramp metering, permits, and vehicle-kilometres travelled charges.


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