International Transport Forum Policy Papers

The ITF Transport Policy Papers provide evidence-based policy insights and recommendations. The series assembles reports from case-specific policy analyses carried out by the ITF on request of member countries, thematic reviews carried out in agreement with local institutions, studies completed in the context of the ITF Corporate Partnership Board, and other work focused on supporting policy decisions. The papers in this series will be of interest to policy makers, industry, researchers and transport experts.


App-Based Ride and Taxi Services

Principles for Regulation

For-hire passenger transport services are an essential component of well-functioning metropolitan areas. But the markets for taxis and other for-hire vehicles have historically been subject to imperfections that regulators have tried to correct or at least attenuate. The current regulatory frameworks surrounding for hire transport reflects this history. But the arrival of innovative app-based ride services, generically referred to as Commercial Transport Apps (CTAs), in this report, challenges established rules. The growing popularity of these services has caught authorities off-guard, as CTAs typically do not fall under established regulatory structures. Moreover, the uptake of similar technologies amongst traditional for-hire operators blurs the line between existing regulatory categories, and in some cases obviates it.


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