Trade Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements

International conventions designed to combat global environmental problems -- known as Multilateral Environmental Agreements or MEAs -- often use trade measures, among other instruments. But in fact the term trade measures covers a variety of provisions, ranging from simple reporting requirements of transboundary movements to the use of trade sanctions imposed to change a country’s environmental behaviour. MEA use of trade measures has not been without controversy in both trade policy and environment policy circles. In order to try and disentangle the various strands of this important set of trade and environment issues, the OECD Joint Session of Trade and Environment Experts focused on the actual experience with the use of trade measures in three universally subscribed MEAs -- CITES (on endangered species), the Montreal Protocol (on ozone layer depleting substances) and the Basel Convention (on hazardous wastes). Whilst the case studies unsurprisingly reveal varying experiences, common issues and main themes, as well as a series of lessons learned, could nonetheless be drawn together from the case study analyses and have been assembled in the concluding chapter of this volume.

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