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Looking Beyond Tariffs

The Role of Non-Tariff Barriers in World Trade

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The studies in this volume review concerns that exporters and governments have raised about market access. This publication analyses where and why certain non-tariff measures are being applied to traded goods that are covered by multilateral rules and disciplines, and how they continue to represent challenges for exporters and policy makers. The specific measures examined are prohibitions and quotas, non-automatic import licensing schemes, customs fees and charges and export restrictions. By drawing together available recent data and other information, this volume expands the knowledge base of policy makers, negotiators and anyone interested in learning about the use of these measures across countries, applicable international trade rules and remaining market access issues.

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Non-tariff Barriers of Concern to Developing Countries

This chapter identifies non-tariff barriers (NTBs) faced by developing countries in their trade with developed countries and in South-South trade. The goal is to raise awareness of barriers that interfere with the ability of developing countries to build up trade. Data collected and analysed consist of the academic literature, notifications by developing countries to the Negotiating Group on Market Access for Non-Agricultural Products (NAMA) of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), business surveys, and records relating to trade disputes brought before the World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional dispute settlement mechanisms.

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