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Looking Beyond Tariffs

The Role of Non-Tariff Barriers in World Trade

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The studies in this volume review concerns that exporters and governments have raised about market access. This publication analyses where and why certain non-tariff measures are being applied to traded goods that are covered by multilateral rules and disciplines, and how they continue to represent challenges for exporters and policy makers. The specific measures examined are prohibitions and quotas, non-automatic import licensing schemes, customs fees and charges and export restrictions. By drawing together available recent data and other information, this volume expands the knowledge base of policy makers, negotiators and anyone interested in learning about the use of these measures across countries, applicable international trade rules and remaining market access issues.

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Non-automatic Import Licensing

This chapter looks at the nature and scope of non-tariff measures, specifically nonautomatic import licensing, which is a means of controlling imports linked to compliance with specific criteria. These schemes can be applied for a variety of purposes relating to both economic and non-economic regulatory goals. The use of these measures has been evolving, and significant reforms that have been undertaken over the years have changed the pattern of perceived problems associated with them.

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