Looking Beyond Tariffs

The Role of Non-Tariff Barriers in World Trade

image of Looking Beyond Tariffs

The studies in this volume review concerns that exporters and governments have raised about market access. This publication analyses where and why certain non-tariff measures are being applied to traded goods that are covered by multilateral rules and disciplines, and how they continue to represent challenges for exporters and policy makers. The specific measures examined are prohibitions and quotas, non-automatic import licensing schemes, customs fees and charges and export restrictions. By drawing together available recent data and other information, this volume expands the knowledge base of policy makers, negotiators and anyone interested in learning about the use of these measures across countries, applicable international trade rules and remaining market access issues.

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Export Duties

This chapter takes stock of the present situation for export duties (tariffs) under the GATT/WTO. It clarifies the definition of export duties and examines existing disciplines at both multilateral and regional levels. It analyses factual information on products subject to such duties drawn from WTO Trade Policy Reviews (TPRs) and describes key findings. Export duties are mainly imposed for fiscal reasons or as a means to restrict exports of particular products in order to reserve the domestic supply for local industries and are applied mainly by developing countries and least developed countries (LDCs). Aspects of possible rule-making on export duties are also addressed.

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