OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers

Selected studies addressing the policy interface between trade and environment prepared for use within the OECD. They address such issues a liberalizing trade in goods that affect the environment, and trade in environmental goods and services.


Greening regional trade agreements

Subsidies related to energy and environmental goods

Many regional trade agreements (RTAs) contain chapters and articles that are environmentally specific. However, Parties can elect to more broadly incorporate environmental objectives in their RTAs to address their environmental concerns in such agreements.

This report investigates in what ways RTAs could incorporate environmental objectives in chapters and articles related to subsidies for energy and environmental goods. It highlights the current state of play in incorporating provisions related to environmentally related subsidies in RTAs, and also illustrates possible ways to incorporate environmental objectives in RTAs based on existing practice and information. Regional disciplines on subsidies could be considered in RTAs with respect to the Parties’ environmental objectives in several ways, such as ensuring non-discriminatory measures, agreeing on a set of non-actionable subsidies, committing to phase-out certain subsidies, and securing greater transparency.


Keywords: environment policy, regional trade agreements, agreements, subsidies, trade and environment, free trade agreements, environmental provisions, trade policy
JEL: R11: Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics / General Regional Economics / Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes; F13: International Economics / Trade / Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations; H23: Public Economics / Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue / Taxation and Subsidies: Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies; Q56: Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics / Environmental Economics / Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth; N50: Economic History / Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries / Economic History: Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries: General, International, or Comparative; F18: International Economics / Trade / Trade and Environment
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