Environmental Requirements and Market Access

image of Environmental Requirements and Market Access

Investigating over twenty cases where exports from developing countries faced new environmental requirements, this OECD report examines how environmental requirements can be trade barriers for developing countries. These case studies, covering a diverse number of products and exporting countries, trace a number of environmental regulations, standards and labelling schemes, from conception through implementation. In so doing, they highlight the difference that sensitivity to potential trade effects can make when designing environmental regulations and standards. They also show that timely technical assistance has played a crucial role in helping exporters from developing countries adjust to new environmental requirements without suffering adverse trade effects.

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The International Fruit Container Organisation (IFCO) Returnable Packaging Initiative

This chapter discusses a private-sector initiative in Germany to require the use of recyclable packaging for shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables, following Germany’s adoption of regulations requiring the disposal of packaging materials. No efforts were made to consult other countries, and the adoption of the system by developing-country exporters of fruits, on whom the requirements place a particularly heavy burden, relied mainly on commercial contacts.

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