Environmental Requirements and Market Access

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Investigating over twenty cases where exports from developing countries faced new environmental requirements, this OECD report examines how environmental requirements can be trade barriers for developing countries. These case studies, covering a diverse number of products and exporting countries, trace a number of environmental regulations, standards and labelling schemes, from conception through implementation. In so doing, they highlight the difference that sensitivity to potential trade effects can make when designing environmental regulations and standards. They also show that timely technical assistance has played a crucial role in helping exporters from developing countries adjust to new environmental requirements without suffering adverse trade effects.

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Phasing Out Methyl Bromide

This chapter discusses the process by which the ozone-depleting chemical, methyl bromide, an effective fumigant, is being phased out. An important innovation of the Montreal Protocol was the creation of a special fund to help finance efforts to find substitute products and have them adopted. However, an unintended consequence of accelerated research on finding alternatives is new pesticide/crop combinations for which associated import tolerances (residue limits) have in a number of cases not yet been established.

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