Stemming the Superbug Tide

Just A Few Dollars More

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a large and growing problem with the potential for enormous health and economic consequences, globally. As such, AMR has become a central issue at the top of the public health agenda of OECD countries and beyond. In this report, OECD used advanced techniques, including machine learning, ensemble modelling and a microsimulation model, to provide support for policy action in the human health sector. AMR rates are high and are projected to grow further, particularly for second- and third-line antibiotics, and if no effective action is taken this is forecasted to produce a significant health and economic burden in OECD and EU28 countries. This burden can be addressed by implementing effective public health initiatives. This report reviews policies currently in place in high-income countries and identifies a set of ‘best buys’ to tackle AMR that, if scaled up at the national level, would provide an affordable and cost-effective instrument in the fight against AMR.



Health and economic burden of antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major public health concern worldwide. The OECD has developed a micro-simulations model to produce comparable cross-country estimates of the health and economic impact of AMR, for a comprehensive set of infections susceptible to develop resistance. Individual analyses were performed for 33 OECD and European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) member countries. The model estimates for the included countries show that the current burden of AMR is substantial but, at this point, still limited in comparison to the impact of other conditions. This chapter provides an overview of current economic studies on AMR, describes the findings of the main analyses, along with the major knowledge gaps in the current economic literature on AMR. The characteristics and results of the OECD AMR microsimulation model are then presented, followed by the results of a second analysis conducted by the OECD, focusing specifically on the potential health burden of AMR in the context of antimicrobial prophylaxis treatments. The final section of this chapter summarises the main findings and discusses their policy implications.



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