Settling In 2018

Indicators of Immigrant Integration

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This joint OECD-European Commission publication presents a comprehensive international comparison across all EU and OECD countries - as well as selected G20 countries - of the integration outcomes of immigrants and their children, using 74 indicators based on three strands: labour market and skills; living conditions; and civic engagement and social integration. To place the comparison in its proper context, the publication also provides detailed data on the characteristics of immigrant populations and households. Three special-focus chapters are dedicated to examining gender issues, youth with a migrant background, and third-country nationals in the European Union.

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Immigrant skills and labour market integration

Immigrants’ skills and how they integrate into the labour market are fundamental to becoming part of the host country’s economic fabric. Although skills and qualifications are obviously decisive determinants in immigrants’ economic and social integration, they do not necessarily indicate how well immigrants actually integrate or fare in the labour market, but rather their ability to do so. Skills have indeed a strong bearing on career paths, and influence what kind of job they find.Employment is often considered to be the single most important indicator of integration. Jobs are immigrants’ chief source of income and also help them – though there is no guarantee – to take their place in society by, for example, finding decent accommodation, interacting with others in the workplace, and learning the host-country language. Work further confers social standing in the eyes of the immigrant’s family, particularly children, and with respect to the host-country population. However, while employment is important per se, so is its quality. This chapter begins by considering immigrants’ skills. It compares their levels of educational attainment with those of the native-born (Indicator ), assesses their proficiency in the host-country language (Indicator ) and their access to adult education and training (Indicator ). It then examines immigrants’ labour market outcomes, analysing their employment, participation and unemployment rates (Indicators  and ) and looking at indicators on labour market exclusion – long-term unemployment and involuntary inactivity (Indicator ). The chapter goes on to look at the characteristics of the jobs that immigrants hold: types of contracts (Indicator ), working conditions (Indicator ) and the skill levels of jobs (Indicator ). It also considers the match between workers’ educational attainment and the requirements of their occupations (Indicator ). The chapter concludes with a look at the incidence of self-employment (Indicator ).

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