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Settling In 2018

Indicators of Immigrant Integration

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This joint OECD-European Commission publication presents a comprehensive international comparison across all EU and OECD countries - as well as selected G20 countries - of the integration outcomes of immigrants and their children, using 74 indicators based on three strands: labour market and skills; living conditions; and civic engagement and social integration. To place the comparison in its proper context, the publication also provides detailed data on the characteristics of immigrant populations and households. Three special-focus chapters are dedicated to examining gender issues, youth with a migrant background, and third-country nationals in the European Union.

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Gender differences in immigrant integration

Comparative analysis of migrant women and men’s outcomes – and of immigrants and natives – can yield insights into integration challenges and support tailored solutions. Migrants’ past, often gendered, experience may interplay differently with host communities and so impact integration outcomes. What is more, immigrant women are less likely than men to be labour migrants. They have disproportionately often migrated for family reasons, which can reinforce gender disparities in employment and social outcomes.However, gender gaps also exist among the native-born. Disparities between male and female immigrants do not, therefore, necessarily suggest more or less successful integration, but can also reflect persisting gender bias in the host-country labour market and society itself, as well as different choices by women and men. This chapter examines key integration indicators to gauge whether and how outcomes differ between men and women. It begins with an overview on the size of the female immigrant population (Indicator ) and a comparison of education levels (Indicator ). It then turns to differences in labour market outcomes: employment, participation and unemployment rates (Indicators  and ), followed by levels of involuntary inactivity (Indicator ). The next section looks at the kind of work that immigrants do. It first addresses working hours with a particular focus on part-time work – a gender-specific issue in itself in many countries (Indicator ) – then the skills levels of immigrants’ jobs (Indicator ). The chapter next goes on to consider how well qualifications and levels of education match formal job requirements (Indicator ). The last section goes beyond the workplace to examine gendered experiences of discrimination on the grounds of ethnicity, race or nationality (Indicator ).

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