Over the Rainbow? The Road to LGBTI Inclusion

image of Over the Rainbow? The Road to LGBTI Inclusion

Ensuring that LGBTI people – i.e. lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transgender and intersex individuals – can live as who they are without being discriminated against or attacked is a concern worldwide. Discrimination against LGBTI people remains pervasive, while its cost is massive. It lowers investment in human capital due to bullying at school. It also reduces economic output by excluding LGBTI talents from the labour market and impairing their mental health, hence their productivity. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the extent to which laws in OECD countries ensure equal treatment of LGBTI people, and of the complementary policies that could help foster LGBTI inclusion. The report first identifies the legislative and regulatory frameworks in the areas of civil rights, protection against discrimination and violence, as well as health that are critical for the inclusion of sexual and gender minorities. The report then explores whether these laws are in force in OECD countries and examines the margin for further improvement. Finally, the report investigates the broader policy measures that should accompany LGBTI-inclusive laws in order to strengthen the inclusion of LGBTI people.

English Also available in: French, German


For more than a decade, the OECD Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (ELS) has been deeply involved in helping OECD countries be more inclusive of their increasingly diverse components thanks to its work on gender equality, ageing and employment, the labour market integration of youth, the inclusion of disabled people, or the integration of immigrants and their families. Since 2016, following a Call to Action signed by 12 member countries, ELS is also spearheading the OECD work on the inclusion of LGBTI people, i.e. lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transgender and intersex individuals.

English Also available in: German, French

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